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New Method for Preparing Liquid Mixtures in Manufacture of Latex Articles Using Electromagnetic Field Energy

Electromagnetic field energy unit

 

The new method belongs to manufacturing in­gredient dispersions for latex mixtures, preparing liquid strong-filled latex mixtures, introducing reinforcing fillers into latex film articles.

The method is widely used for preparing water dispersions of vulcanizing and gelatinating ingredients in the manufacture of latex foam.

The method is effected using the electromagnetic field energy.

Compared to the known methods, it has certain advantages:

  • possibility of continuous production; total elimination of ball, vibrating and colloid mills from the production;
  • reduction of process time hundreds of times;
  • 30—40 times reduction of electric energy consumption;
  • saving in expensive raw materials and floor area.

In the industrial realization of the new method, for example in the manufacture of latex foam, it becomes possible to continuously obtain dispersions of vulcanizing and gelatinating agents simultaneously introducing a cheap mineral filler (kaolin) into latex foam. The latex foam obtained by the new method contains 5—10 weight parts of kaolin, which permits the same amount of latex to be saved without im­pairing the quality of the finished product, the volume weight of latex foam being reduced by 10—20% with a 3—5 times decrease of residual strain after multiple compression which prolongs the article life 3—5 times.

Moreover, the new method may be used to introduce reinforcing fillers into latex film articles. Compared with the existing methods covering only some grades of lateces, the present method has certain valuable advantages:

possibility of introducing reinforcing fillers within 3—4 seconds with small amount of emulsifiers and at a high rate;

better quality of articles due to strength increase by 50—300%;

improved homogeneity and uniformity of the thickness of thin-walled articles with a reduced cost; reduced production expenditure.

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OP CHLOROPRENE LATEX FILMS PILLED WITH AEROSILS DY DIPPERENT METHODS

Method for introducing filler Aerosil grade Amount of filler, weight parts per dry

weight of latex

Physical and mechanical properties
elon­gation,

%

tensile

strength,

kgf/cm2

perma­nent elonga­tion, %
Ball mill Aerosil-175 15 746 180 18
Aerosil-300 10 805 185 22
New met­hod Aerosil-175 15 845 232 24
Aerosil^ 300 10 1,020 232 20

The existing methods for introducing reinforcing fillers into latex do not cover such fillers as kaolin and carbon black. The new method makes it possible to reinforce latex articles with these fillers.

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OP CHLOROPRENE LATEX FILMS FILLED WITH KAOLIN AND CARBON BLACK BY THE NEW METHOD

Filler Amount of filler, weight parts per dry weight of latex Physical and mechanical pro­perties
elongation, % tensile

strength,

kgf/cm^

permanent elongation, %
Kaolin 5 1,078 190 20
Carbon black 5 553 354 16
No filler 0 1,005 134 19

 

 

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OBTAINED WHILE USING THE NEW METHOD AND BALL MILLS FOR INTRODUCING FILLERS INTO LATEX

Ball mills New method Improvement of characteristics, times
Specific energy consumption, kW/kg«h ^ 0.286 0.0019 150
Specific output, kg.h/m 230 515,000 2,240

It is possible to effect the method in special appa­ratuses using the electromagnetic field energy which are manufactured serially.

The new method is widely introduced at many compnies and is patented in a number of foreign countries including the USA, Italy, Great Britain, France, Germany and others.

The technology using the new method is mastered and may be shown to the interested firms in industrial operation.

Drilling Fluid production with the GlobeCore AVS-150

drilling fluid

GlobeCore’s engineers have recently tested the New AVS-150 Vortex Layer Device’s ability to produce High Quality Drilling Fluids.

A special drilling fluid is always used when drilling a well for oil or natural gas. The drilling fluid is usually made immediately before the extraction of the oil or natural gas. The use of a quality drilling fluid resolves many production problems, from filtration and cleaning of the well, to drilling safety issues. Use of a high quality drilling fluid, therefore, is required in any modern drilling operation.

drilling fluid

To make the proper drilling fluid emulsion, GlobeCore engineers used a carbon based composition of diesel, with the density of 835 kg per m³, water, and the following concentration of other components per one cubic meter: 20 liters of Emultal emulsifier, 12 kilograms of organophilic clay, 20 kilograms of limestone and 90 kilograms of salt rock. In other words GlobeCore Engineers produced a high quality, water-based drilling fluid also known as Water Based Fluid (WBF).

When making the WBF solution, GlobeCore Engineers tested the fluid with a viscometer for plastic viscosity and with a filter press for filtration and crusting at 7 atmospheres of pressure for 30 minutes. Lastly the fluids were tested for density and electrical stability.

Test results

We received the following results:
Plastic viscosity, cPs PV – 11 (centipoise);
Filtration, cm3 Фani – 3,8 (cm³);
Electrical stability, V – 429;
Density, kg/m³ – 940.
The production rate of the AVS-150 is 2 to 2.5 m³/hour.

Removal of phosphates from waste water

Chemical waste water, containing phosphates, is environmentally hazardous.

Most facilities use one of the two phosphate removal techniques:

  • Chemical removal using various reagents;
  • Sorption.

Purification during the production process is inefficient. It must be performed in several stages and takes a long time, for instance, decontamination in reactors takes as long as 30 minutes.

We have researched the process of removing phosphates from wastewater by the AVS vortex layer magnetic mill. We studied the influence of treatment duration and pH of the medium  on the degree of decontamination, determined the optimal ratio of reaction components, processing rate of the mill and the influencing factors, as well as optimal process conditions.

Converting phosphates into water insoluble compounds occurs in one stage. The duration of treatment in the AVS is 1-3 seconds.

The substance used for the research was industrial waste water with 4 500 mg/l phosphate concentration, рН of 4.0, 10 % lime milk, processed for 1 to 3 seconds in the mill, , reagent consumption of 70–120 % of stoichiometric, рН of the waste water during processing in the range of 4.0 to 12.0. The content of phosphate in waste water was determined by phosphate photo colorimetric method. Test results are presented in tables below. The research in industrial conditions was performed using a pilot unit, in which wastewater from the production process were first supplied to equalizing reservoir, while prepared lime milk was supplied to a consumption tank.

The research into decontamination of wastewater in the AVS has shown that magnetic mill is more efficient compared to equipment currently used for this purpose.

Converting phosphates into water insoluble compounds occurs in one stage. The duration of treatment is 1-3 seconds. The reagent used is lime with 5-10% excess calcium oxide of the theoretically required amount. Using the AVS for wastewater contamination allows to reduce the consumption of reagents and power, decreases equipment footprint and improve the quality of decontamination process.

 

The process in the AVS mill occurs in one stage, therefore equalized wastewater is pumped directly into the AVS together with lime milk from the consumption tank. Both components are intensively mixed, dispersed and subjected to electromagnetic field in the AVS, then pumped to settling tanks for clarification. The flow rate of wastewater and lime milk is monitored by flow meters, acidity of the wastewater is controlled by pH meters. The research allowed to identify optimal conditions and efficiency of wastewater purification. The results are presented in tables 1 and 2.

 

Table 1

The impact of the cost milk of lime on the officiency of wastewater (ferromagnetic elements: steel, d = 1, 6 mm, l = 16 mm, m = 175 g, τ = 3 sec)

Residual concentration of hazardous substances, mg/dm3

Consumption of lime milk (СаО) of the theoretical requirement,%

70

80 90 100 110

120

Phosphates (Р2О5)

1290,0

750,0 8,4 0 0

0

Table 2

AVS treatment and efficiency of wastewater processing

Initial parameters

Wastewater parameters after treatment

Wastewater

Lime milk

рН

Р2O5, mg/dm3 СаО, % рН

Р2О5, mg/dm3

3,65

2 100 105 7,6

32

3,65

2 250 105 8,2

8

5,9

3 200 105 9,2

0

3,0

6 500 105 11,5

0

3,0

5 100 110 11,6

0

3,95

5 000 110 9.3

0

3,95

5 050 110 8,6

0

3,95

5 050 110 10,0

0

 

PAINT AND LAQUER PRODUCTION

Intensive dispersion of solid material with simultaneous particle activation can be applied in paint production and laquer production. Iron oxide pigments, for instance, can be dispersed to the size less than 20 micron in 15-60 seconds in the AVS electromagnetic mill; in a ball drum, the same process takes several hours.

Paint Production in AVS

The paint production industry uses predominantly three types of equipment: bead mills, ball drums and ring roller mills. Each has its own relatively narrow application range, all have limited production rate, high power consumption and complex servicing and repairs.

Electromagnetic mills have demonstrated their efficiency in the dispersion process. This device has been improved and upgraded by GlobeCore engineers. The device consists of the a 60-330 mm diameter active chamber (tube), installed inside an inductor coil generating a rotating EM field. The active chamber is filled with anywhere from several dozen to several thousand (0.05 – 20 kg) cylindrical ferromagnetic elements, with the diameter of 0.50-5 mm, and the length of 5-60 mm.

When the inductor coil is energized, an alternating EM field is created inside the active chamber; the field affects all FM elements. With certain EM field parameters, each element will rotate at the rate equal to the frequency of the field, created by the induction coil.

Inside the active chamber, the film-forming paint material is subjected to the influence of the FM elements, which move along complex paths (due to collisions); the product is dispersed and then expelled through the outlet. The efficiency of the device allows it to replace four 4m3 ball drums and cuts energy costs more than 3 times.

The AVS electromagnetic mill is used for physical activation of the paint product. Steel needles are used as FM elements; in the EM field, the needles’ physical effect homogenizes the mixture. The particles of the dye are uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the product.

In the process of pigment pulverization, some FM element pulverization also occurs. This is not acceptable for white paint. However, for paints of other colors, some metal does not degrade the product, but actually often improves its performance.

The principle of AVS operation is based on the influence of the particles in the rotating EM field, the high energy and the mechanical impact of the elements (needles).

In the electromagnetic field, any material in the active zone are rapidly mixed, pulverized and made chemically active due to ionization. The energy applied causes deep change in the structure of the material and activates the interacting components regardless of their state: gaseous, liquid or solid.

The mills were tested in the production of water paint, which include chalk, talcum, titan dioxide and ultramarine. In the course of the experiments, paint of satisfactory quality was made in the mill within 1-2 minutes.

Dispersion of luminescent dyes in production of antifloating ink also yielded good results. The required dye particle size (below 2 micron) was obtained in the AVS within 5-6 minutes.

The influence of electromagnetic field improves quality, strength and durability of the paint product.

Printing ink to protect security paper from forging includes up to 60% of finely dispersed ferromagnetic powder of iron oxide with particle size of 0.005 – 0.5 micron.

The particles of printing ink can be encapsulated. The particles are coated by a layer of ionomer resin or oil, thixotropic material and/or a binding resin. This method excludes organic solvents and cuts the cost of dispersing the capsulated dyes or black in the required binder.

AVS-150 magnetic mill

AVS-150 magnetic mill for paint production

One of the ferromagnetic paints contains oil or varnish based on a synthetic polymer (30-40% by weight) and ceramic carbonyl iron or 30-80 micron ground ferrite (60-70% by weight). The paint is only used for blackboard. It creates a smooth surface, contrasting the chalk and with magnetic properties to attach sheets of paper (drawings, posters or diagrams) using small magnets. The cost of such a blackboard is 50-80% less than a linoleum blackboard and 10-20 times less than that of a glass blackboard.

Another water-solved magnetic paint has been developed for application on concrete, cement, plaster or chipboard surfaces. Due to the properties of the paint, the magnetic powder immediately sticks to the surface, endowing it with magnetic properties. Notes can be attached to the surface with small magnets. The magnetic paint is black, but once applied, it can be painted over by any other color. The paint is safe to children (lead free). The paint is matte, water soluble for special indoor applications. Not only does the paint protect the surface, it also attracts magnets to the painted surface. Thus, the surface turns into an information panel which requires no pins, nails or glue.
avs

Researches also look into the influence of the magnetic field on elastic and viscous properties of rubber ferrites. It has been determined that the magnetic field, where the material is placed, strongly affects its elasticity and viscosity, increasing effective viscosity and Young’s modulus.

Another direction of research are porous polymers, hydrogels and polymer fibers, modified by magnetic liquid particles. The process of permeating the hydrogel and polymer pores by the magnetic particles of the magnetic liquids was studied both in and outside of a magnetic field. It has been determined that external gradient magnetic field improves the depth of permeation of hydrogel with magnetic liquid. The research also considered the conditions of material production and the magnetic qualities of the new magnetically controller highly elastic materials, the thickness of magnetic coating was estimated as well. The experiments showed that the thickness of the coat depends on the concentration of the magnetic liquid, pH of the environment, surface charge and the method of pro-processing. An elastic magnetically controlled caoutchouc-based composite, containing magnetic filler, plasticizer and a binding agent, was developed. The material changes its shape and size in a magnetic field and returns to normal when the field is removed.

Pigment nano-milling on AVS 150 by GlobeCore

QUARTZ SAND PULVERIZATION

Quartz and quartz sand are natural materials. There is a lot of quartz in the Earth’s crust, and the material has several important properties, such as high mechanical strength and adsorption capability. Quartz can be a part of other minerals, bringing its content in the Earth’s crust to over 60%. It is mostly used in the form of sand in the industry.

Fine pulverization of minerals changes their reactivity and intensifies processes where the minerals are used. The dispersion process changes physical and chemical properties of the material.

Quartz sand granulometric composition after grinding in the AVS

Initial fraction size, micron Amount of sand of the fractions, %,
depending on grinding time, minutes
1 3 5 7.5 10
+500 14 13 6 3 1
+200 62 34 15 3 1
+160 3 2 1 0 0
+100 5 5 3 1 1
+63 2 4 5 3 2
-63 14 42 70 90 95

 APPLICATIONS OF QUARTZ SAND

Applications of this material are practically limitless. It is stable to chemical, mechanical and atmospheric factors and flows well. The material is used in:

  • Dressing compounds;
  • Parget;
  • Fire-proof materials;
  • Steel production;
  • Sanding of sports grounds, house yards etc;
  • Production of molds for foundries;
  • Removal of metal corrosion;
  • Production of enamel and paint;
  • Construction of floors;
  • Drinking water and waste water filtration;
  • Production of fine grain concrete and polymer concrete;
  • Production of glass and fiberglass.

QUARTZ SAND PRODUCTION METHODS

There are two methods of quartz sand production, natural and artificial. In the former case, the material is extracted from quarries, while in the latter, the quartz is pulverized and purified, then sifted.

While selecting the production technique, it should be noted that each industry has its own requirements in terms of granule size, smoothness, color etc. For instance, decorative architectural applications require smooth fine to medium granules, while jagged granules work best in sandblasting.

Jet mills are used to pulverized materials with particles size below 3 micron. In these machines, streams of air carrying the material collide. Particles are pulverized due to impacts and friction during the collision.

Vibration mills are designed for pulverization of materials with particle size from several millimeters to several microns. These devices consist of a grinding chamber with a vibrator. When the shaft of the vibrator rotates, a variable force is generated, making the chamber move a circular pattern. The internal surface of the chamber and the external surface of the vibrator transfer the motion to the particles of the processed material. Impacts of the particles create mechanical tension, which changes the structure of the material and promote its interaction with the media filling the empty space inside the chamber. The biggest drawback of vibration mills is the abrasion of the chamber, which does not only decrease lifetime of the equipment, but causes contamination of the material with abrasion products.

Planetary mills facilitate fine and superfine pulverization of materials. The device consists of three of four drums, which rotate around a central axis and, at the same time, around their own axes in the direction opposite the rotor.

With all the advantages, such as high capacity and intensive pulverization, planetary mills also lack in terms of scaling and rapid wear. Besides, these devices are mostly used of wet milling.

GLOBECORE ELECTROMAGNETIC MILLS

avs
As an alternative to the above devices for quartz sand production, GlobeCore offers electromagnetic mills: the AVS-100 and AVS-150 vortex layer devices. The devices is powered by industrial three phase power supply. The design resembles an asynchronous electric motor with the rotor substituted for by the milling chamber. The processed material is fed into the chamber with ferromagnetic particles, which interact with the magnetic inducer’s rotating EM field.

Physical and chemical processes in the vortex layer generators are intensified due to intensive dispersion and stirring of the material, acoustic and electromagnetic influence, high local pressures, electrolysis and other factors. All of these processes occur in the same chamber at the same time.

The vortex layer devices have one important advantage: they can easily be retrofitted into the existing production lines to improve product quality. By combining several units consecutively or in parallel, it is possible to further increase processing capacity.

Research shows that it only takes 2 minutes to pulverize 200 g of quartz sand to 1 micron in the electromagnetic mill, using 300 grams of 3 mm ferromagnetic particles.

Water-coal slurry as an alternative to natural gas and heavy fuel oil

Using inexpensive coal slack and the Vortex layer device, one can make fuel not inferior in terms of heat capacity to heavy fuel oil and natural gas, but a lot more economical: water-coal slurry or liquid fuel.

What is «water-coal slurry»?

Water-coal slurry (abbreviated as CWS, CWSM, CWM) is a mix of coal, water and plasticizer. Modern day CWS is coming into use in heat generation facilities as an alternative to natural gas and heavy fuel oil. The main advantage of this fuel is its cost efficiency, since the calorific value of CWS is no less than that of the more expensive natural gas and fuel oil, with a much lower cost.

Using the AVS for production of this fuel reduces production time by a factor of 3, increasing product yield by a factor of 5 or 6 compared to the use of a ball mill

The share of the fuel cost in the cost of a unit of heat produced (1 Gcal) or a unit of power produced (1 kWh), is, as a rule, the largest share and exceeds 50% of the heat unit cost. The remaining part of the cost of heat or power depends on the cost of plant equipment operation, including labot costs, rent, depreciation of buildings and fixed assets, the overhead, taxes etc. For heat and power plants running on gas, heavy fuel oil or coal the parameters have already been calculated or at least calculation methods exist. Heat and power plants running on CWS require separate calculation.

CWS is characterized by the following parameters:

  • rheological (viscosity, shift tension);
  • sedimentation (retaining the uniformity in static and dynamic conditions);
  • combustive (fuel value, efficiency of combustion)

 CWS has the following properties:

  • ignition temperature – 800-850°С;
  • combustion – 950-1150°С;
  • calorific value – 3700-4700 kcal.
  • carbon combustion ratio – above 99 %

 CWS production technology

CWS consists of 55-70% finely dispersed coal, 30/48% water and plasticizer. Water in CWS reduces emissions and makes the coal safe in terms of explosion and fire hazard. The cost of coal is approximately one third of the heating oil fuel. Despite the fluctuations of the world’s coal prices, this ratio remains about the same.

The process of CWS production consists of three stages (Fig.1):

  1. Preliminary crushing to 3-12 mm size. This may not be necessary if coal slag with small enough particles is used.
  2. Wet grinding in ball mills to particle size less than 3 – 150 µm. This is the key stage, since the quality of grinding and dispersion defines the properties of CWS, such as viscosity and stability.
  3. At this stage, the uneven distribution of particles in the suspension is corrected, plasticizers and stabilizers are added. At this third stage, CWS receives the required homogeneous quality.

CWF

CWS production stages

Pulverization of coal is the main problem that must be solved in the process of CWS production|. Rheological properties and combustion stability depend directly on the stability of coal pulverization and the correct concentrations of the auxiliary components.

To crush coal, shale or coke breeze, hammermills or ball mills of various types are used.

Among the many existing methods of coal crushing, the continuous wet grinding ball mills are the most widely used at this time.

Coal, crushed to particle size of 3-6 mm, is fed into ball mills for further pulverization, along with water and additive. The ball mill crushes the coal to fraction size 0-3 µm. After combining all of the components, the material returns to the mill for a more thorough mixing.

GlobeCore engineers have tested AVS for coal-water fuel production, you can see our results on the video below:

Implementation of AVS-100 process intensifier

As was described in the previous articles, the vortex layer devices have several advantages over other types of equipment: sharp increase of physical and chemical process rate by several orders of magnitude; improvement of product quality; reduction of raw material consumption and increased product yield; reduction of energy costs; reduced equipment footprint etc.

The table below shows the comparative results of powder pulverization in AVS and various other types of mills.

Table 1

Results of the various equipment in the grinding process of powder

Equpment Power consumption, kW Processing rate, kg/hour 3 µm fraction output, %
AVS 1,5 > 2 50
Ball mill (wet grinding) 0,5 > 1 7-15
Ball mill (dry grinding) 0,5 > 2 1-3
Centrifugal mill 0,6 До 10 5
Hammer mill 2,0 > 80 5

As seen from the table, AVS significantly reduces the production time (by a factor of 3), increasing 5-6 times more of the product, than with a wet grinding ball mill.

It should be noted, that AVS is most beneficial in the final grinding stage. Besides, the vortex layer devices allow to product a more finely pulverized product. The devices, developed by out company not only intensify a range of processes, but also raise the general level of production, eliminating ball and vibration crushers, which are sources of increased noise and dust.

Mayonnaise and its production in AVS

The AVS-100 vortex layer device is used successfully in food production to make mayonnaise and various sauces. Using the AVS reduces the complexity of the technology process and its duration, while improving the product’s dispersion.

The device intensifies the process by eliminating some of the stages and reducing the cost of the product, improving its taste, stability and consistency, as well as biological stability. Using the AVS for production of mayonnaise and sauces also improves product shelf life and allows to produce medium and high nutrition value mayonnaise.

The technology of using electromagnetic devices with ferromagnetic particles is in constant development, making a better product in compliance with all standards and regulations in effect.

For instance, the latest developments suggest the following AVS mode: EM field strength — 15·104 А/m, frequency – 50 Hz, magnetic field induction – 0,13 Tl, vegetable oil input rate 0.0012 l/sec to 0.007 l/sec. A range of ferromagnetic particles with various length to diameter ratio is recommended, including 1:6, 1:9 and 1:10.

Using the AVS in the process of mayonnaise and sauce production extends product shelf life

The described method is patented by Kaplina and Polozhyshnikova (Poltava Consumer Cooperation University, Ukraine).

To product mayonnaise using the AVS, the following formulation is suggested. The components of the recipe are sieved (sugar, salt, egg and mustard powders) and portioned into the mixer to make mayonnaise paste (excluding sugar and salt). Then the paste is taken into the chamber of the AVS-100 unit, where salt and sugar are added from loading hoppers. To mix the components, the product is processed for 5 seconds. Half of the recipe’s amount of vegetable oil is added at 0.0012 m/sec, then the other half is added at 0.007 m/sec. The product is processed until mayonnaise is produced, and 5 seconds before completion, vinegar solution is added. The finished mayonnaise is pumped from the chamber for packaging.

The result of the processing of the formulation’s components in the vortex layer of ferromagnetic elements is the influence of several factors, such as the frequency and strength of particle collisions. These factors are defining for creation of various degrees of hydrodynamic instability in the cortex layer, leading to dispersion of droplets due to turbulent agitation and crushing of droplets between the colliding particles and due to acoustic vibrations in the medium.

The recipe for a high nutrition mayonnaise is shown in Table 1

 

Table 1

High nutrition value mayonnaise formulation

Material Content, g
Egg powder 5
Sugar 1,5
Salt 1,3
Dry milk 1,6
Sodium bicarbonate 0,05
Deodorized refined sunflower oil 65,4
Vinegar acid (80%) 0,75
Mustard powder 0,75
Water 23,15

Table 2

Organoleptic, physical and chemical mayonnaise quality parameters

Organoleptic
Parameter Control
Appearance and consistency Uniform cream-like consistency with some air bubbles
Color Cream-white, uniform across the product
Smell Distinct, characteristic of the components of the formulation
Taste Pleasant, with a sour note, somewhat salty
Physical and chemical
Emulsion stability (%) 100
Dispersion (%) 98, fat droplet diameter 1-2 µm
рН 3.7

Modification of gasoline by water in the vortex layer generator

The vortex layer generator can also be used successfully in fuel production, specifically for modification of liquid hydrocarbon fluids by water and for production of motor and heating fuel with improved performance and environmental properties.

The method of modified fuel production involves missing of the hydrocarbon components with water in a rotating electromagnetic field of the vortex layer device at the component ratios of 60:40 to 98:2.

To increase the octane number before mixing, 5 – 10% (of the hydrocarbon component) of oxygenates are introduced into the mix.

The components are subjected to the influence of the rotating EM field for at  least 10 seconds. The fuel obtained in this manner burns more efficiently, improving technical and economic performance. See table 1 for specifics.

Samples Qty. RPM 76 Gasoline, regular Water modified gasoline
Sample 26
СО, % CH, ppm СО, % CH, ppm
1 Qty 0,5 490 0,4 400
2 RPM 0,8 500 0,2 370
3 (ход) 0,9 550 0,1 350
Average 0,73 497 0,24 374
1 2500- 1,3 190 0,6 180
2 3000 1,25 200 0,1 180
3 RPM 1,25 200 0,1 180
Average 1,27 197 0,27 180

One known way of production of fuel emulsion is mixing fuel, water and a surfactant to stabilize the emulsion.

In this method, water is first mixed with the surfactant, then with the fuel, or the fuel, the water and the stabilizer are mixed simultaneously. Introduction of fuel into the emulsion is performed at flow rate ratio of 1:1:50.

The drawback of this method is the use of a surfactant, which usually adversely affects combustion and exhaust: carbon deposits in cylinders, increased content of CO and CH in exhaust. Besides, the technology is rather complex and unreliable, since even a slight deviation from the flow rate ratio causes instability of the emulsion.

The method involves dispersal of water in fuel until droplet size is 1 micron, using fractionation devices, including a sieve, static, rotary or ultrasonic mixer. The emulsified fuel obtained contains emulsification system, which includes at least one complex sorbitan ester.

While modifying diesel fuel in this manner, the cetane number drops significantly, viscosity and soluble gum content increase. Besides, the process of fractionation using various types of mixers and sieves is lengthy and complicated. It is a cyclic process, run until the droplet size decreases to the required value (1 micron).

Storage stability of such emulsion at room temperature does not exceed three months, which is apparently not sufficient for industrial use.

The Vortex Layer device allows production of stable antifloating fuel by subjecting the components to a rotating EM field, created in the AVS chamber.

The results of using the AVS is the improvement of economic and process performance of fuel. Water-fuel emulsion made by the AVS is so stable that does not require surfactants

The result is the improvement of economic and operational characteristics of the fuel.

This is achieved by mixing the components at room temperature for 10-15 seconds in the rotating EM field of the vortex layer device (AVS). Content of water in hydrocarbon fuel may be from 2 to 40%. The product is a water-fuel emulsion, so stable, that a surfactant is not required.

This method implies using oxygenates as additives to improve octane and cetane numbers of fuel, including those soluble in water, in the amount of 5 – 10% (by weight) of the amount of the hydrocarbon component. Some of the oxygenates used are alcohols (including ethyl alcohol) and esters (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and ETAE).

By modifying gasoline with water in the vortex layer device, the authors were able to produce fuel compliant with the relevant standard with octane number increase by 2 – 3 points. Comparison if exhaust gases before and after modification are shown in Table 1. As can be seen in the table, the content of CO in the exhaust has been decreased significantly, with a marked reduction of CH content.

The invention is applicable for production of all types of fuel, including heating fuel.

The invention is applicable for production of all types of fuel, including heating fuel. Implementation allows to produce stable combinations of liquid hydrocarbons and water, with long storage life.

Modified fuel complies with the standards, has a higher octane number compared with the original. Tests of experimental batches of fuel also revealed their cleaning effect.

The water-fuel emulsion ensures fuller fuel combustion, less carbon deposits and improves fuel performance.

It is suggested to run this process using a vortex layer device with ferromagnetic particles.

Application examples:

Using the AVS to mix gasoline and water influenced the structure of both fuel and water. When fuel and water are mixed, new chemical compounds form, making separation of the components impossible.

Example 1. To process the ingredients, a steel capsule was filled with 1750 ml of gasoline (0.85-0.9 of the capsule’s volume), 500±50 grams of ferromagnetic elements, 2-40% water and 5-20% oxygenates. The capsule was sealed and placed into the vortex layer device for 10-15 second processing. The result was a stable fuel-water emulsion not separating for a long period of time.

The content of water in gasoline depends on the conditions of treatment; in the vortex layer the molecules of hydrocarbons undergo structural change, altering their physical and chemical properties.

Example 2. This is similar to Example 1, but performed with 1750 ml of diesel fuel and 3-5% water. The experiment results in fuel emulsion with improved environmental performance and increased cetane number.

Example 3. Similar to Example 1, but performed with heavy fuel oil. The water-fuel emulsion allows for a more complete combustion of fuel and cinder, reduction of NOx emissions, elimination of complex and expensive fuel drying and water removal devices. This resulted in a stable fuel emulsion with improved environmental parameters and increased cetane number.

Industrial production of fuels with this invention will bring a significant economic effect when using water in fuel and a reduction of harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

In brief: 

The method of modification of liquid hydrocarbon fuel, including mixing of the fuel with water, performed in a rotary electromagnetic field of a vortex layer generator with component ratio (fuel to water) in the range of 60:40 to 98:2.

The number 1 method involves adding of oxygenates to increase ocrtane number in the amount of 5-10% of the fuel before mixing of the components.

The method involves treatment in the rotary EM field for at least 10 seconds.

Nanotechnologies in concrete production

The Vortex Layer device is a versatile device, applicable in many industries. The device is of interest to many scientists, theoretical and practical, since it intensifies various chemical and physical processes. The analysis of factors of the vortex layer allows to estimate the action of the vortex layer on certain chemical reactions. Due to electrolysis occurring on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles, the influence of the electromagnetic field, cavitation and other features of the vortex layer, products of entirely new properties can be made. Let us describe the research into the production of nano-modified concrete.

The main problem of modern construction material science is the production of high quality concretes. The solution may be found due to modification of the cement stone structure, using more of the potential of crystalline hydrates, improving the interaction of all concrete components. One of the most promising directions of concrete quality research is the use of nanotechnology in its production.

The research was applied to the widely used fine grain concrete mix.

Nanomodified concrete has better durability and higher flexing and compressive strength than the regular concrete

To ensure unform distribution of the concrete mix, including the nano-additives, four test mixings were performed in the AVS-100 vortex layer device. To intensify the mixing process, polymer-coated ferromagnetic elements were used in the device. In all other mixings the device was used only for magnetizing of hardening water.

Solutions of the same composition were prepared using the same aggregate, with the 1:3 ratio of components. Water-cement ratio changed from 0.6 (for samples hardened with magnetic water) to 0.8 (for samples with regular water), percentage ratio of nanomaterials was from 0.5% to 2%. Treatment of water in the alternating magnetic field was 2 to 5 seconds.

The results of the research showed that even small portions of carbon nanoparticles improve a range of concrete properties.

Strength of nano-modified concrete samples exceeds that of control samples by 5.8 for compression and 5.1 times for flexing

It has been determined that the samples with the maximum strength has 1% of additive in the mix. Generally, strength peaks with nanomaterial content from 0.5% to 1%. Strength of nano-modified samples exceeds that of control samples by 5.8 for compression and 5.1 times for flexing.

The results of the research is shown in Figures 1 – 3.

nano-concrete figure 1

Figure 1 – Dependency of flexing strength of fine grain concrete on nanoproduct content:

1 — mixes using only magnetic water;
2 — mixes prepared in the vortex layer device

nano-concrete figure 2

Figure 2 – Dependency of fine grain concrete compressive strength on nanomaterial content:
1 — mixes prepared with magnetic water only;
2 — mixes prepared using the AVS

nano-concrete figure 3

Figure 3 – Dependency of concrete breaking strength on water magnetizing duration:
1 —  flexing breaking strength; 2 — compressive breaking strength

The graphs show that the samples prepared using only magnetic water, are 20-25% less durable. This is due to the improved quality of mix preparation in the vortex layer. Additive content over 1% shows decrease of strength, both flexing and compressive.

The use of modified concrete allows to reduce metal amount per structure and to reduce costs

The results of the experiments show that nano-additives influence the strength of concrete mix and concrete structure formation significantly. There is a reason to suggest that nanomodified concrete will also demonstrate better strength and durability. In general, the research confirmed the potential of using carbon nanoparticles in concrete and their activation in the AVS-100 device.

 

The Vortex Layer device is a versatile device, applicable in many industries. The device is of interest to many scientists, theoretical and practical, since it intensifies various chemical and physical processes. The analysis of factors of the vortex layer allows to estimate the action of the vortex layer on certain chemical reactions. Due to electrolysis occurring on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles, the influence of the electromagnetic field, cavitation and other features of the vortex layer, products of entirely new properties can be made. Let us describe the research into the production of nano-modified concrete.

The main problem of modern construction material science is the production of high quality concretes. The solution may be found due to modification of the cement stone structure, using more of the potential of crystalline hydrates, improving the interaction of all concrete components. One of the most promising directions of concrete quality research is the use of nanotechnology in its production.

The research was applied to the widely used fine grain concrete mix.

Nanomodified concrete has better durability and higher flexing and compressive strength than the regular concrete

To ensure unform distribution of the concrete mix, including the nano-additives, four test mixings were performed in the AVS-100 vortex layer device. To intensify the mixing process, polymer-coated ferromagnetic elements were used in the device. In all other mixings the device was used only for magnetizing of hardening water.

Solutions of the same composition were prepared using the same aggregate, with the 1:3 ratio of components. Water-cement ratio changed from 0.6 (for samples hardened with magnetic water) to 0.8 (for samples with regular water), percentage ratio of nanomaterials was from 0.5% to 2%. Treatment of water in the alternating magnetic field was 2 to 5 seconds.

The results of the research showed that even small portions of carbon nanoparticles improve a range of concrete properties.

Strength of nano-modified concrete samples exceeds that of control samples by 5.8 for compression and 5.1 times for flexing

It has been determined that the samples with the maximum strength has 1% of additive in the mix. Generally, strength peaks with nanomaterial content from 0.5% to 1%. Strength of nano-modified samples exceeds that of control samples by 5.8 for compression and 5.1 times for flexing.

The results of the research is shown in Figures 1 – 3.

nano-concrete figure 1

Figure 1 – Dependency of flexing strength of fine grain concrete on nanoproduct content:

1 — mixes using only magnetic water;
2 — mixes prepared in the vortex layer device

nano-concrete figure 2

Figure 2 – Dependency of fine grain concrete compressive strength on nanomaterial content:
1 — mixes prepared with magnetic water only;
2 — mixes prepared using the AVS

nano-concrete figure 3

Figure 3 – Dependency of concrete breaking strength on water magnetizing duration:
1 —  flexing breaking strength; 2 — compressive breaking strength

The graphs show that the samples prepared using only magnetic water, are 20-25% less durable. This is due to the improved quality of mix preparation in the vortex layer. Additive content over 1% shows decrease of strength, both flexing and compressive.

The use of modified concrete allows to reduce metal amount per structure and to reduce costs

The results of the experiments show that nano-additives influence the strength of concrete mix and concrete structure formation significantly. There is a reason to suggest that nanomodified concrete will also demonstrate better strength and durability. In general, the research confirmed the potential of using carbon nanoparticles in concrete and their activation in the AVS-100 device.

 

Using AVS to intensity biogas production

The range of Vortex layer device application is quite wide, the unit is efficient for ultrafine grinding, dispersion and mixing and intensification of various chemical and physical reactions.

While researching the practical applications of the Vortex layer device, it proved to be beneficial in the process of biogas production, beside other uses.

As was described in previous articles, AVS is often used as a reactor. Due to the electromagnetic effect combined with the ferromagnetic particle impact, the processes of mixing and pulverization are intensified by orders of magnitude. As compared to traditional technologies, the use of the device allows to save on energy and material costs, improving quality and saving time.

GlobeCore’s engineers tested the units for animal waste decontamination; some of the tests involved decontamination of hog and oultry manure, neutralization and odor removal, purification of crop growing waste, processing of other organic waste. A byproduct of livestock waste decontamination is biogas.

GlobeCore clients already use the AVS successfully in biogas production lines.

A wide range of organic waste is used in biogas production, including cattle and poultry manure, fecal sediment, waste from fish production or slaughter-houses, milk production waste, biodiesel byproducts, juice production waste, potato processing waste (peelings, rotten potatoes) and many other substances.

Biogas yield depends on the content of the dry material and the nature of the feedstock. One ton of cattle manure yields 50—65 m³ of biogas with methane content of 60 %, 150—500 m³ of biogas from various plants with methane content up to 70 %. Maximum biogas yield is 1300 m³ with up to 87% methane was obtained from fat.

According to the information of the European biomass association (EBA), anaerobic decomposition process is used for efficient biogas production. Biodegradable materials, such as hog manure or milk products decompose in anaerobic environment into less complex substances. The end result of this decomposition under the influence of several types of microorganisms is biogas. Biogas is a mix of various gases, mostly methane, which boasts high energy value and can be used for heating or electric power generation.

Besides, the products of fermentation, the byproducts of biogas production, can be used as high quality fertilizer.

Biogas production is a complex process, which includes not only the equipment, but also planning, regulation by legislation and other aspects, which should make biogas production beneficial for farming and the environment.

In the process of biogas production planning, consider the issues of air and water production from pollution and waste water treatment. These can also be addressed using the vortex layer device by GlobeCore. In this website you will find information on using the AVS for waste water treatment, food production waste processing and more.

Process complexity and the need for a comprehensive approach notwithstanding, all scientists concur that at this time, only a small part of the potential biogas production resources are used. The agricultural sector (where biogas is an important element) biomass has the highest potential in biogas production. According to the EBA estimates, from 20 to 40 million hectares of land in the EU can be used for energy crops without any harm to Europe’s food production.

Compared to traditional technologies, the vortex layer device, when used as a part of the bio-energy complex, increases the rate of various chemical and physical reactions, as well as feedstock processing rates, by orders of magnitude..

 

Automatic reagent feeder for vortex layer device waste water purification systems

GlobeCore develops, manufactures and installs waste water treatment systems based on the vortex layer devices. The main feature of these devices is the comprehensive effect on the processed materials, including intensive mixing and dispersion, acoustic and electromagnetic influence, friction, high local pressures, electrolysis etc.

The above increase the efficiency of waste water treatment: reduces energy costs, reagent consumption, as well as equipment footprint.

Using the reagents facilitates precipitation of solved or dispersed contaminants from water. For best results, the reagents are injected into the waste water in the exact required amounts. Overuse increases process and equipment costs significantly.

The waste water treatment systems operating based on the vortex layer device, the significant economy of reagents is achieved by employing a special component which automates their supply into the process. This device measures acidity, flow and the percentage of metals in the incoming and the outgoing streams. Based on the data, the following actions are performed:

  • The amount of reagent supply is adjusted
  • Reagent supply changes depending on the current process indications and control inputs
  • Incoming stream flow rate is adjusted;
  • Drain into a reserve settling tank in case of peak contamination or flow rate increase beyond the capability of the equipment;
  • The flow is distributed among several vortex layer devices.

Output of statistical data on waste water parameters is also possible.

Automatic addition of ferromagnetic particles into the active chamber of the vortex layer device

The electromagnetic vortex layer devices were first developed in 1960s. In these devices, a complex interaction between the ferromagnetic particles, liquid and the processed material occurs, accelerating the processes of mixing and pulverization. Besides, vortex layer devices can successfully be used as reactors.

GlobeCore manufactures AVS-100 and AVS-150 vortex layer devices. In essence, the equipment is universal for many applications, such as:

  • Bone meal production
  • Mayonnaise production
  • Vegetable processing
  • Vegetable oil purification
  • Intensification of flour-based product production
  • Purification of waste water contaminated by chrome and other heavy metals
  • Biodiesel production
  • Preparation of water-fuel emulsions
  • Decontamination of hog manure etc.

The pulverization effect depends on the nature of ferromagnetic element motion in the active chamber of the device. It can be achieved both by free collisions of particles with ferromagnetic elements and by collisions between two elements or between an element and the inside wall of the chamber.

In course of operation of the vortex device, the ferromagnetic particles are subject to wear, reducing their quantity and the efficiency of material processing. Therefore it is necessary to maintain the required amount of the ferromagnetic particles in the chamber during operation. This must be done continuously, because stopping the production line every time when the amount of the ferromagnetic elements drops below some critical level is usually physically impossible.

GlobeCore has developed and manufactures special components to measure the amount of ferromagnetic elements inside the active chamber of the vortex layer device and add more elements should the amount drop too low. The optimal amount of ferromagnetic elements is different for each process, the critical low level is also different. It can be selected on the control panel.

Beside manufacturing of vortex layer devices, GlobeCore also supplies active chambers and ferromagnetic elements worldwide.

Application of the vortex layer device for seed pretreatment

Future cereal crop seed productivity is influenced by many factors, including external such external ones as habitation and growth environment and their biological characteristics. Each factor has different influence in different periods of development, and it is often impossible to take all into account. However, modern agricultural science has a range of techniques to reduce the influence of the negative factors and augment the positive ones to obtain better crops.

An important role is played by presowing stimulation and disinfection, basically pretreatment of seeds before sowing.

The electromagnetic field of the AVS unit influences the seeds, with the added feature of disinfection and disinsection.

The methods of pretreatment may be divided into three subgroups: biological, chemical and physical.

Biological methods  include soaking the seeds in various extracts, including vitamins and ferments. These methods have a number of drawbacks, such as low technological efficiency, complexity of stimulant production, uneven seed reaction, the need for many experiments to determine the optimal dosage etc.

Chemical methods involve treatment of seeds by various chemical substances, such as inhibitors, macroelemts and their salts. The main drawback of these methods is the toxicity of the substances used, log degradability and harmful effects on animals and humans.

In turn, physical methods include mechanical, thermal and radiation.

Physical methods include barbotage, ultrasonic treatment in water and scarification. Their drawbacks are: long processing time, the need to dry the seeds, low technological efficiency and high labor costs.

Thermal methods are stratification, steam treatment and varying temperature treatment. These approaches also have drawbacks, such as treatment duration (up to several months in some cases) and the critical need to maintain the correct temperature.

Radiation treatment is the exposure of seeds to ionizing radiation.

Electro-physical methods are of the most interest. These include electric influence, electromagnetic fields of various frequencies, infrared and ultraviolet processing etc). Of the above, electromagnetic field treatment is the most promising.

GlobeCore has developed the AVS-100 vortex layer generator to help solve some of the modern problems in agriculture. The device is a hollow cylinder made of non-magnetic material, equipped with a magnetic field inducer with coils. The electromagnetic field influences the seeds, with the added feature of disinfection and disinsection.

The pretreatment is made possible by the reaction of the seeds to an external stimulus, if the intensity thereof is above a certain threshold. Ultrahigh frequency energy, applied to the seeds, starts reactions, which occur in the cells of the seeds powered by their internal resources. After the influence of the ultrahigh frequency the amount of free radicals (unpaired electrons) is increased, changing biomembrane permeability, active increase of oxidation reactions, increased breathing intensity, nucleic acid and protein synthesis and mitosis, promoting seed development and intensifying growth.

Vegetable oil degumming: equipment choice

Vegetable oil degumming is the removal of phospholipids from the crude product. Those are fat-like substances, highly valuable biologically. Actual content of phospholipids in vegetable oil varies from 0.2 to 4.5% and depends on the specific substance and the method of oil production.

Immediately after oil extraction, phospholipids are solved in the oil, but can lose that solubility in storage and precipitate, clouding the product.

Degumming is based on the ability of phospholipids to attach to water and form insoluble  hydrated substances which can precipitate. This process requires 0.5 to 6% water.

The process is as follows. Continuous degumming starts by heating the oil to 45-50 ºС and then mixing it with water. The moist product is then supplied to a special device where hydrated phospholipids form. Oil is separated from sediment, then dried at 85-90 ºС. The process lasts until moisture content is 0.05%.

The content of phospholipids in degummed oil usually does not exceed 0.2-0.3%. Beside the reduction of phospholipid content, degumming lowers the oil’s acidity, improves its color, removes protein, hydrocarbons and solid particles. The substance separated from the oil is dried and phosphate concentrate is obtained, which can then be used for the production of margarine, bread baking, etc.

GlobeCore has developed AVS-100 vortex layer device for intensification of food production processes.

To prevent the oil from clouding when stored in cold temperature, the oil is winterized, removing wax and paraffin. This process is described in this article.

To reduce the amount of free fatty acids in the oil, those are neutralized by alkali or strong base salts. The result of this treatment is the formation of salts insoluble in oil: soaps. Sodium or potassium hydroxide, calcinated water, ammonia and other substances are used for neutralization. Concentration and temperature of the alkali solution is defined based on the acidity of the oil. To remove the remaining oil, the product is washed by hot water 3 or 4 times and dried.

In the degumming process, equipment choice is important. At this stage of food industry development, it is the equipment and machinery that defines the quality of the finished product and process efficiency, that is, profits.

GlobeCore has developed AVS-100 vortex layer device for intensification of food production processes. This unit is specifically designed for mixing of components. Existing equipment cannot ensure adequate component mixing and contact, leading to reagent overruns and degraded stability and quality of the oil.

In optimal conditions (i.e. the weight of ferromagnetic elements and processing duration) the degumming of vegetable oil in a vortex layer device reduces the content of:

  • Р-based substances by 88.2-90.3%;
  • Non-saponifiable substances by 26.8-34.6%;
  • Ash by 94.7–96.2%.

Vortex layer device in production of unfired anhydrite binding material

Plaster industry now makes products based on plaster binding materials. In practice such materials are made by low-temperature firing of natural material to calcium sulfate hemihydrate. At the same time, unfired plaster binding materials and gypsum cement are not often used. The main factors limiting their use is the need for lengthy milling (for unfired binding material) and high energy costs (for gypsum cement).

Recently, GlobeCore has achieved a lot in the area of process intensification, which allows to return to the idea of using unfired binding material in construction.

The results of GlobeCore engineering department research show, that the disadvantages of unfired anhydrite binding material can be resolved by using an AVS-100 vortex layer device (magnetic mill).

GlobeCore devices pulverize anhydrite stone by ferromagnetic elements, not only increasing the mean surface area of the binding material, but also to improve particle imperfection.

In the GlobeCore technology, the duration of the influence of the forces created by the ferromagnetic particles on the pulverized material and the frequency of application of such forces. The intensity of pulverization is directly proportional to the force and frequency of its application, and is inversely proportional to the duration of force application.

Scientific literature shows the results of the research into the influence of natural material pulverization duration in AVS-100 vortex layer devices on the properties of the anhydrite binding material (Table 1).

Table 1

Influence of anhydrite stone pulverization duration on its properties

Process duration, seconds Remaining, %, on sieve No Passed through the sieve, % Mean surface area, cm2/g
02 008
30 18.1 12.7 69.2 2615
60 11.2 4.0 84.8 3700
90 2.7 3.7 93.6 3955
120 1.5 3.2 95.3 4545
150 1.2 2.3 96.5 5150
180 0.9 2.4 96.7 5600
210 0.8 2.0 97.2 6085

The table shows that the increase of processing duration also increases the mean surface area of the product (from 2615 to 6085 cm2/g). To compare: similar grinding fineness in ball mills is achieved only after 5 – 8 hours of the process.

Therefore, the GlobeCore technology makes the production of unfired anhydrite binding material promising due to rapid pulverization of the natural material in vortex layer devices. The significantly shorter processing time allows to reduce energy costs as well. The unfired anhydrite binding material made by GlobeCore production line, can be used for:

  • Production of small scale wall components;
  • Production of brick mortar;
  • Construction of seamless self-leveling floors;
  • Production of artificial marble;
  • Production of combined anhydrite binding materials.

Intensify you process with GlobeCore equipment for increased efficiency and profit!

Vegetable oil filtration

Vegetable oil is a made from seed feedstock by pressing or extraction. Combined method, where pressing is used initially, followed by extraction, is somewhat less common.

The process of pressing the oil involves subjecting the prepared seeds to high pressure. Extraction is based on diffusion and involves extraction of oil by extraction solvents (hexane).

Extraction of oil is preceded by cleaning the seeds, peeling and pulverization, which results in making of meal.

The meal then is treated by moisture and heat, moisturizing and heating the product in ovens or by jet steam. The product of this process is pulp, from which it is easy to extract the oil.

Pressed oil almost always contains substances which significantly degrade the quality of the product and should therefore be removed. Filtration of oil is necessary.

Filtration can be mechanical, removing suspended particles from the oil. It is usually achieved by settling or by running the oil through special cotton fabric in press-filters. At this stage the use of centrifuges is also possible.

Beside mechanical filtration, the process of refining includes degumming, winterization, bleaching, deodorization and polishing.

Degumming is the removal of phospholipids, proteins and mucus substances. It is not a stand alone process and is used in combination with setting. First, the oil is washed by a small amount of hot water, then precipitated contaminants are removed by settling.

Winterization is necessary to remove wax and paraffin from the oil.

The combined influence of the vortex layer and the magnetic field intensifies the mixing process, creating the necessary conditions for efficient vegetable oil degumming.

Neutralization is the treatment of oil by a water solution of sodium hydroxide. This process is based on the ability of free fatty acids to react with the alkali to form soapstock. The latter is insoluble in oil, settles to the bottom and can be easily removed.

Adsorption refining is also referred to as bleaching. The ‘bleaching’ refers to the removal of oil-soluble pigments from the oil (chlorophyll, carotenoid etc).

Bleaching of oil is performed under vacuum at the temperature of 75-80ºС. The product is mixed with a bleaching clay (bentonite or similar) and stirred for 20 – 30 minutes. This is usually sufficient to adsorb the pigments from the oil. Then the oil is settled and filtered through press-filters.

Deodorization is a process of distillation, removing odorous materials from the oil, such as low-molecular fatty acids, aldehydes, ketone and other substances with detrimental effect on the smell and taste of the oil. Deodorization is also required to remove polycyclic hydrocarbons and toxic substances. The process involves purging the oil by jet steam in vacuum.

It should be noted that complete refining of oil is not always necessary, however, filtration always is. When seeds are pulverized, the feedstock is never completely free of contaminants.

Mechanical mixing of components in the production of vegetable oil is important in filtration of vegetable oil. Traditional equipment used for this purpose is unable to ensure complete contact of the components, overusing the feedstock and degrading quality and stability of the vegetable oil filtration process. A good alternative is the use of the vortex layer devices (AVS). The combined influence of the vortex layer and the magnetic field intensifies the mixing process, creating the necessary conditions for efficient vegetable oil degumming. For the specific results of the tests performed, refer to «Purification of vegetable oil using the AVS».

GlobeCore magnetic strainers to capture metal in food production

One of the possible applications of vortex layer generators is the processing of liquid phase and heterogenic systems. This equipment allows to intensify processes in various industries: food production, chemical, microbiological, petrochemical, etc.

The principle of vortex layer device operation is based on chaotic motion of ferromagnetic elements in a rotating magnetic field. A layer forms inside the device’s active chamber, called the vortex layer. In this layer, the input material is intensively stirred and pulverized with uniform influence of the electromagnetic field, acoustic vibrations and high local pressures.

The research performed by GlobeCore specialists shows that vortex layer devices can be successfully used in food production. Some of the possible applications are:

  • Mayonnaise and high-nutrition sauces;
  • Flour products;
  • Fruit juices;
  • Vegetable oil etc.

The vortex layer generators improve the consumer qualities of the product, reduce the time it takes to make it and extend storage life. However, the ferromagnetic elements are subject to wear in the process of operation. Presence of metal particles in food products is unacceptable, hence the development of magnetic strainers to capture them. These strainers efficiently and continuously remove ferromagnetic particles from food mixtures, effectively stopping them from getting into the final product.

GlobeCore offers inline magnetic strainers for metal capture, made specifically for use in food production lines with AVS-100 or AVS-150 vortex layer devices. On client request, it is possible to make magnetic strainer of custom size for other industries and applications.

Using the vortex layer devices to improve marine fuels

The first mention of adding water in internal combustion engines dates back to the end of the 19th century. Many studies have been performed since then, which indicate that adding water to fuel is, in fact, possible and leads to the following:

  1. Intensification of fuel combustion;
  2. Reduction of incomplete combustion product and nitrogen oxides in engine exhaust.

The quality of water used to make water-fuel emulsions has a direct effect on the wear of the fuel system components. This calls for systems which not only process the fuel, but also treat water before mixing. This is achieved by vortex layer devices, which can disperse the components.

A vortex layer device is a tube made of non-magnetic material, where a rotating magnetic field is created. The field interacts with the ferromagnetic elements. The latter create a vortex while moving. Several effects occur in the active chamber of the device, which can deform crystal lattice of solid material, significantly increase chemical reactivity of substances etc.

Using vortex layer devices allows to introduce up to 7% water into fuel.

Using vortex layer devices allows to introduce up to 7% water into fuel. Mixing occurs on molecular level, making the product resistant to separation and extending storage life to at least 5 – 6 months.

Yet another advantage of using these systems is the large amounts of heat generated in the process of operation. This heat can be used to warm up the fuel and water before mixing.

It should be noted that the process of water-fuel emulsion preparation by vortex layer devices can be used for other fuels beside maritime, such as boiler and heating fuels.

However, note the following. While the vortex layer device is operating, the collisions of the ferromagnetic particles inside the active chamber cause them to wear and chip. Particles of metal in maritime or heating fuel is not acceptable, so special magnetic strainers must be used.

GlobeCore offers inline magnetic strainers made especially for use in water-fuel emulsion production lines, based on AVS-100 or AVS-150 vortex layer devices. Magnetic strainers of custom size can also be manufactured for other industries and applications.

Pulverizing solid materials: Portland cement

The main feature of the AVS devices, while pulverizing solid materials, are the multiple and frequent shocks and friction forces, which does not only cause pulverization of solid particles, but also activation of their surface due to deformation of the crystal lattice.

To confirm this, we experimented by atomizing 400 grade Portland cement for use as an additive in quick settling cement mix for high vibration and dynamic forces.

Since cement hydration begins on the surface of cement particles, the total area of the particles defines the amount of material which can be hydrated. Therefore, the rate of hydration depends on the particle size, fine grinding being necessary for quick increase of strength.

The main feature of the AVS devices, while pulverizing solid materials, are the multiple and frequent shocks and friction forces, which does not only cause pulverization of solid particles, but also activation of their surface due to deformation of the crystal lattice.

In this test we used 500 grams of 400 grade Portland cement, pulverized by steel ferromagnetic elements for 30 minutes.

Particle size distribution was measured using 0.08, 0.05 and 0.04 sieves.

For simplicity of calculation, we took a standard sample of 100 grams, dried it at 105 – 110°С in a drying cabinet for 2 hours and then cooled it in a desiccator.

 Using a mechanical sieving device, we screened the sample through 0.08 and 0.05 sieves. All of the material passed through both sieves, while the 0.04 sieve captured thirteen grams of the material, that is, 13% of the total mass.

 A manual one minute rescreening on paper, with the bottom removed, was performed. According to standard, the allowable portion is 15%, 2 percent more than what we received.

From the portion screened through the 0.04 sieve, we took several samples of the material to measure fineness through an optical microscope and to compare the results with the initial material.

You can see the comparison in the photos made using the microscope.

 

Successful tests of Vortex Layer effectiveness during manure odor neutralization and waste disinfection

GlobeCore engineers have investigated effectiveness of Vortex Layer Devices for wastewater treatment and Manure Odor Neutralization.

We received a lot of questions from our clients regarding possible ways of AVS unit application in the agricultural sector. This article focuses on these issues.

We have run purification of pig and cattle feces from collibacillus, proteus, streptococcus, staphylococcus, bacteroides and helminthes.
The process was performed in a AVS-100 unit (laboratory scale system).

500 gram samples of cow and pig feces were used in the experiment, divided into 250 gram portions. Samples 1P and 2P (pig), 1C and 2C (cow).
The experiment was performed in two stages, increasing sample processing time.

For all samples, 250 gram of feces were placed into the reactor with 200 gram of ferromagnetic elements (FE), diameter 3 mm, length 18 mm, SH15 steel.

Sample processing durations were 2 and 5 minutes for the first and the second samples respectively.

According to the report prepared by the “Zoo-hygiene and veterinary support of processes in hog production”:

  • After processing of the first sample (2 minutes), the percentage of helminthes dropped by 31%, collibacillus (Endo agar) by 65%, proteus by 70%, anaerobic by 27%, staphylococcus by 80% and complete removal of bacteroides.
  • After processing of the second sample (5 minutes), the percentage of helminthes dropped by 53%, collibacillus (Endo agar) by 94%, anaerobic by 91%, staphylococcus by 80% and complete removal of bacteroides.

 

manure odor desinfection

To confirm the results, we will run additional tests on lab mice, adding an extract of the process samples into their water.

Full video-report you can find here

Five days after contamination, we collected droppings of the mice and sent the material for laboratory analysis to test for helminthes larvae. The laboratory tested six samples, of which two samples were taken from mice, contaminated by extract of hog and cattle feces without processing of the material in the vortex layer system, our control group, two samples with 2 minute processing time of initial material and two samples with 5 minute processing of initial material.
Helminthes larvae was detected in droppings of control group mice
Samples with 2 minute processing duration were also contaminated by larvae
No helminthes larvae was detected in samples, obtained from initial materials processed for 5 minutes.
According to these results, it can be concluded that the report presented by the “Zoological hygiene and veterinary processes in hog production” has been completely confirmed.

AVS in construction material production

The use of AVS in production of various construction materials, such as nano-modified concrete, finely dispersed cement, extra-strong silex bricks etc, is very promising.

The vortex layer device, or the AVS-100, has been tested in various industrial facilities. Practice shows that AVS efficiently replaces such devices as ball, vibration, hammer mills, various pulverizers and dispersers. AVS units are used as reactors, mixers etc.

 

 

Application in claydite production

Claydite.

keramzit_50866In the process of claydite production clay is homogenized and pulverized in mixers, roll mills etc. However, these devices do not ensure quality pulverization,hence the low strength of claydite. Due to lack of pulverization and homogenization even 3% of carbon inclusions in well foamed low-fusible clay makes it useless the resulting claydite loses strength or disintegrates in storage due to CaO hydration. Our solution to the problem is the Vortex Layer Deivce.

Oversanded clay with free SiO2 content up to 10-30% are also hardly usable for claydite production. All of these problems are largely solved by processing the raw material in the vortex layer. Pulverization and homogenization of furnace-charge for general purpose and specialized claydite production in AVS resulted in significant volume weight reduction and strength increase (see Table below)

Table 1

Results of pulverization and homogenization of furnace-charge in AVS for claydite production

Exp No Raw material and AVS processing duration Claydite mechanical properties
Furnace-charge processing in AVS Furnace-charge mixed without AVS
Volume weight, γ, g/cm3 Shear strength σs*10-5, Pa Strength to weight ratio Volume weight, γ, g/cm3 Shear strength τs*10-5, Pa Strength to weight ratio
 1 Clay with 26% free SiO2 (30 second slip processing) 0,24 2,25 10,3 0,38 1,60 5,1
 2 Same with 41% free SiO2(30 second slip processing) 0,34 2,45 7,8 0,84 3,24 4,1
 3 Monotermit (7 minute dry processing) 0,85 29,4 36 1,6 9,81 6,5
 4 Clay 50%, carbon cinder 50% (7 minute dry processing) 0,57 10,7 18 0,58 1,32 8,4
 5 Same with powdering the raw material with kaolin (7 minute dry processing) 0,74 27,9 32,0

Processing of clay slurry from clay containing up to 40% silica dioxide caused double reduction of claydite weight volume with simultaneous strength increase (strength to weight ratio of AVS-processed claydite is almost twice that of regular furnace charge). The sharp improvement of claydite properties, is, obviously, the activation of quartz sand due to formation of active centers – free radicals, formed because of the breaking of siloxane linkage Si—O similar to dispersion of SiO2 in disintegrators at high rotor RPM.

Activation of SiO2 causes silica dioxide to actively participate in silicate and glass formation. After burning of claydite, there are no large SiO2 particles (stress points) in the granules. Presence of SiO2 in glass increases strength and heat resistance.

 Dry processing of the raw material in the vortex layer is quite efficient. For instance, the monothermite processing resulted in light weight fire resistance filler with half the specific weight and three times the strength of control samples (Experiment 3, Table 1). This was achieved by dry processing of multi-component furnace-charge with up to 50% of thermal plant cinder in the vortex layer (experiments 4 and 5).

The examples demonstrate that using the AVS is quite promising for production of claydite from oversanded material with high carbon content, for production of claydite with increased strength and thermal resistance, high quality fillers from furnace-charge with up to 50% waste, such as carbon cinder.

Production of foam concrete

Блоки-стеновые-из-ячеистого-бетонаFoam concrete is produced by setting the mixture of binder, water and siliceous aggregate, foamed with a foaming agent. The most often used foaming agent is aluminum powder, which emits hydrogen in the reaction of water solution of sodium hydroxide.

It is known that the quality of foamed concrete increases with the decrease of pore size and increase of uniformity. To achieve this, the aluminum powder must be uniformly dispersed in the mix. Besides, the structure of foamed concrete is determined by such factor as presence of active CaO in the mix.

Usually, foaming agent preparation involves only the removal of paraffin film from the particles of aluminum by mixing them with water and surfactants and then blending the suspension with the mix. Due to the low efficiency of the mixing devices, the paraffin film is very difficult to remove. Besides, the particles of aluminum coagulate, which causes concentrated gas emission in the mix, cavities and cracks. Due to insufficient gas emission in production of gas silicate, the mix must be combined with up to 25% lime. The need for additional lime is also dictated by the requirement to obtain, by hydration setting, sufficient strength of the concrete to keep it foamed. Using AVS in preparation of the aluminum suspensions in production of gas silicate allows to completely eliminate coagulation of aluminum particles, increasing their activity, emission of gas and homogeneity. Some comparative data on physical and chemical properties of gas silicate, produced with aluminum suspension prepared by various methods, is shown in table 2.

 

Table 2

Physical and mechanical properties of gas silicate produced using aluminum suspension made using different methods

Exp No Suspension preparation conditions AVS-100 processing rate, l/hour Mechanical qualities of the gas silicate
AVS processing Mixer processing
Specific weight, γ, g/cm3 Shear strength σs*10-5, Pa Strength to weight ratio Specific weight, γ, g/cm3 Shear strength τс*10-5, Pa Strength to weight ratio
1 Aluminum powder — 100% of calculated amount 120 385

377

414

18,7

10,3

11,8

2,56

1,47

1,41

396

419

438

15,2

79,5

10,8

2,03

0,92

1,14

2 Same – 90% of calculated amount 950 386

427

375

14,5

15,2

12,3

1,85

1,70

1,80

437

14,1

1,51

The table shows that using AVS processed aluminum suspension resulted in gas silicate with strength 10-30% higher and strength to weight ration 20-60% higher than those of the control sample (table 2, experiment1).

Using AVS allowed to reduce foaming agent consumption by 10%, lime consumption by 2%, without making the product heavier. On the contrary, the specific weight was reduced, while strength to weight ratio increased. Apparently, the quality of foamed concrete can be increased by processing the lime-sand or cement-sand mix in the vortex layer to activate SiO2 similar to the process if claydite production.

 

Production of silex brick

Silex brick

Silikatnyjj-kirpichThe raw material for silex brick production are quartz sand (92-95% dry mix) and lime (5-8%). The strength of the brick are directely correlated to the activation of SiO2 and uniform distribution of the components. This makes the AVS very promising for processing of the dry mix for component activation. To explore this, lime and sand mix was sifted through the vortex layer of the AVS-100 unit. It is interesting that such brief processing (particles of the mix passed through the vortex layer in fractions of a second) did not cause pulverization of sand and lime. The degree of activation can be judged by the change of the mechanical properties of the brick made from this mix.

AVS processing conditions Compression strength
σs*10-5, Pa
No processing 91,2
One sifting through the layer 239,5
Two siftings 324,5
Three siftings 328,1

As the data shows, brief processing of the mix increases the strength of silex brick by 3.5 times.

Apparently, similar processing of sand/lime, lime/cinder and lime/silica mixes will lead to similarly significant improvement of mechanical properties of silicate concretes, widely used in construction.

AVS Application in rubber production processes

A daily sediment of kaolin suspension prepared in the AVS in 5 minutes is only 5%, whereas a similar suspension, prepared in a ball mill in a four hour process, separates completely. A suspension of carbon black does not separate after a one minute processing in the AVS. At the same time, a similar suspension prepared in a ball mill in a 72 hour process, is unstable and separates completely in 24 hours.

Production of rubber with improved quality parameters, such as tensile strength, relative elongation, elasticity etc requires a new approach: modern equipment. Activation of surface particles of various resin or latex product fillers usually occurs in ball or vibration mills. Processing of the material using these devices is difficult and relatively inefficient. A more efficient approach is the chemical activation of fillers.

Modification of fillers increases the durability of vulcanizing agents, due to the formation of modifier adsorption layer, promoting formation of adsorption and chemical bonds between the molecules of the filler and resin.

We suggest replacing these mills with the AVS-100 vortex layer device. Unlike its predecessors, the AVS is not a source of dust. The units are completely air tight and feature closed processing process.

Research shows that activation of kaolin in a vortex device (table 1) allows to increase the durability of vulcanizing agents based in SKS-30 ARKP resin up to 84.3% with the other properties unchanged. Processing of kaolin in ball mills, on the other hand, does not lead to significant change of the vulcanizing agent qualities.

Table 2 shows the results of research into the changing durability of cured stock based on SKS-30 ARKP rubber filled by TM-15 carbon black, activated by the AVS.

Table 1

Tensile strength of rubber produced from SKS-30 ARKP, filled with activated kaolin (σr×10–5Pa*))

Duration of vulcanization at 143ºС, minutes

Duration of kaolin activation in AVS-100 minutes

Duration of kaolin activation in ball mill, minutes

0

1 2 3 4 30 60

120

20

2,9

39,3 3,9

30

9,81

22,6 24,5 73,6 6,57 9,8 45,1

43,2

40

21,6

32,4 41,2 92,2 86,3 21,6 65,7

64,7

60

62,8 58,9 57,9 116,0 105,0 63,8 47,1

51,0

80

55,0 50,0 76,6 92,2 55,0 29,4 29,4

55,0

Texas Tornado Vortex Layer Device AVS-150.
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Preparation of latex ingredient dispersion

In the process of latex product manufacturing, a large fraction of the costs is allocated to preparation of dispersed ingredients, mixed into the latex in porous product manufacturing, dispersions of vulcanizing agents, kaolin, carbon black etc. Most of the facilities prepare the dispersions in ball or vibration mills, with processing duration exceeding 70 hours.

Currently, devices for suspension preparation in latex process have been implemented in several facilities. The processing rate of such a device is 1 cubic meter per hour (see Figure 1). The device replaces 8 vibration mills of 400 liters volume each, run the process continuously and improve the quality of the products.

Figure 1. Suspension preparation unit based on AVS 1 – pre-mixing vessel; 2 – pump; 3 – AVS; 4 – sample valve; 5 – prepared emulsion collection tank.

Figure 1. Suspension preparation unit based on AVS
1 – pre-mixing vessel; 2 – pump; 3 – AVS; 4 – sample valve; 5 – prepared emulsion collection tank.

 Table 2

Tensile strength of rubber made from SKS-30 ARKP resin filled with activated carbon black (σr×10–5Pa)

Duration of vulcanization at 143ºС, minutes

Duration of carbon black activation in AVS-100, minutes

0

1 3 5

10

10

98,1 119,0 104,0 120,0

129,3

20

93,2 98,1 105,0 98,1

52,0

40

96,2 80,5 96,2 108,0

98,1

60

104,0 121,5 110,0 128,5

100,0

Similar to previous research, the influence of the ferromagnetic particle vortex layer on chalk as cured stock filler has also been studied. Processing of chalk in volrtex layer for 10 minutes improves the durability by up to 51.5% (Table 3), while processing in a ball mill has no noticeable effect on cured stock durability.

Table 3

Vulcanization duration 143ºС, minutes

Duration of chalk activation in AVS-100, minutes.

Duration of chalk activation in ball mill, minutes

0

1 2 3 5 10 20 30 60

120

30

34,3 26,5 29,4 30,4 25,5 25,5

40

32,4 33,3 30,4 32,4 43,2 49,0 36,6 33,3 33,3

40,2

60

35,3 22,6 29,4 29,4 29,4 44,1 29,4 25,3 32,4

38,3

80

27,5 27,5 22,6 30,4 34,3 36,3 35,3 24,5 28,5

30,4

Processing of chalk in the vortex layer for 10 minutes improves the durability up to 51,5% (Table 3), while processing with the ball mill has no noticeable effect.

Vortex layer devices can also be used to prepare water suspensions of sulfur, zinc oxide, carbon black and other substances mixed into latex. Table 8 shows data in producing these suspensions in AVS and in ball mills.

Ingredient

Suspension concentration, % AVS Ball mill
Duration of preparation, minutes Particle size, micron Sediment in 24 hours, % Duration of preparation, minutes Particle size, micron

Sediment in 24 hours, %

zinc oxide

70

10 0,7-0,8 60 24 1-5 100

Sulphur

70

10 0,7-2 70 72 2-3 100
kaolin 30 5 0,5-0,8 5 4 1-10

100

charcoal black

DG-100

15 1 1-3 0 8 8-10

100

The table shows that the maximum size of solid phase particles in the suspensions made in the AVS is usually below 1 – 3 micron, most being in the range from 0.1 to 1 micron.

The separation stability of all those suspensions is improved. The sediment, deposited in 24% from kaolin suspension prepared in the AVS in 5 minutes is only 5%, while a similar suspension prepared in the ball mill in a four hour process separates completely. A carbon black suspensions does not separate after 1 minute of processing in the AVS. At the same time, a similar suspensions, processed for 72 hours in a ball mill, is unstable and separates completely in 24 hours.

As the data shows, application of AVS in latex process is quite efficient compared to the previously used equipment.

Vortex layer devices can also be used to prepare water suspensions of sulfur, zinc oxide, carbon black and other substances mixed into latex. Table 8 shows data in producing these suspensions in AVS and in ball mills.

Ingredient Suspension concentration, % AVS Ball mill
Duration of preparation, minutes Particle size, micron Sediment in 24 hours, % Duration of preparation, minutes Particle size, micron Sediment in 24 hours, %
zinc oxide 70 10 0,7-0,8 60 24 1-5 100
Sulphur 70 10 0,7-2 70 72 2-3 100
kaolin 30 5 0,5-0,8 5 4 1-10 100
charcoal black

DG-100

15 1 1-3 0 8 8-10 100

The table shows that the maximum size of solid phase particles in the suspensions made in the AVS is usually below 1 – 3 micron, most being in the range from 0.1 to 1 micron.

The separation stability of all those suspensions is improved. The sediment, deposited in 24% from kaolin suspension prepared in the AVS in 5 minutes is only 5%, while a similar suspension prepared in the ball mill in a four hour process separates completely.

The maximum size of solid phase particles in the suspensions made in the AVS is usually below 1 – 3 micron, most being in the range from 0.1 to 1 micron.

A carbon black suspensions does not separate after 1 minute of processing in the AVS. At the same time, a similar suspensions, processed for 72 hours in a ball mill, is unstable and separates completely in 24 hours.

As the data shows, application of AVS in latex process is quite efficient compared to the previously used equipment.





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Application of the AVS for preparation of suspensions in latex process significantly accelerate it and improves product quality. Table 4 shows data on degree of dispersion of the solid phase of the suspension with various durations of treatment in vortex layer.

Table 4

Degree of dispersion of suspension solid phase with various duration of processing in the vortex layer

Particle size, micron

Content of general dispersion solid phase particles, %, processed in the AVS for the amount of seconds

10

20 20

40

3

20 10

2,3

40 25 20

1,9

10 25 40

1,1

10 20 10

25

0,76

20 20 30

75

AVS is no less efficient in production of sodium silicofluoride suspension, which is used in production of latex sponge as a gelling agent. Usually, a 27% suspension of sodium silicofluoride, prepared in ball mills in a 48 hours process is used. Comparative data on stability and particle size of this dispersion, prepared by various different methods, is shown in Table 5.

Table 5

Comparative data on sodium silicafluoride suspension stability, prepared in AVS and ball mill

Suspension preparation time

Maximum size, micron

Daily sediment, %

AVS, seconds

Ball mill, hours

10

3

35

20

2

34

30

1

27

60

1

26

48 5

100

The table shows that the highly dispersed and stable suspension of sodium fluoride was made in the AVS, with preparation duration reduced more than 1700 times.

Practical application of the AVS reduces the footprint of dispersion preparation facilities.

When suspensions prepared in the AVS are mixed into the latex, the physical quality of latex products is significantly improved. E.g., when adding a general dispersion of vulcanizing agents, prepared in the AVS continuously, into a latex mixture based on natural and synthetic rubber, the mechanical properties of the latex sponge is improved.

Highly dispersed and stable suspension of sodium fluoride was made in the AVS, with preparation duration reduced more than 1700 times.

Table 6 contains comparative data on physical and mechanical properties of latex sponge using general dispersion of vulcanizing agents, prepared by various methods.

As the data in the table shows, the tensile strength of the latex sponge with AVS-made general dispersion, is increased by 20% on average, specific weight decreased by 20%, permanent deformation after multiple compressions is reduced by 10-20 times with some reduction in durability and increase of relative elongation, which offers a possibility to produce high quality products. Besides, introduction of a general dispersion of vulcanizing agents made in the AVS reduces vulcanization time and improves product quality. Comparative data on physical and mechanical properties of latex film made by ionic deposition method from natural latex filled with general dispersion is presented in Table 6.

Table 6

Comparative data on physical and mechanical properties of latex sponge made with vulcanizing agents prepared in AVS and in ball mill

Method of preparing the dispersion of vulcanizing agents

Physical and mechanical properties of latex sponge

Specific weight, 
g/cm3
Hardness

НВ·10-5, Pa

Tensile strength

σr·10-5,

Pa

Relative elongation,
%
Elasticity,
%
Permanent deformation after multiple compressions, %
AVS

0,099

0,097 0,400 176 90 1,2
0,101 0,091 0,401 180 90

0,9

0,101

0,098 0,407 180 98 1,2
0,101 0,098 0,407 180 98

1,2

Ball mill

0,102

0,198 0,338 137 88 19
0,119 0,173 0,322 133 89

28

0,106

0,154 0,326 108 91 25
0,126 0,204 0,334 126 91

15

Table 7

Comparative data on physical and mechanical properties of latex film depending on the method of vulcanizing agent dispersion preparation *

Film vulcanization duration at 143º С, minutes

AVS Ball mill
Relative elongation,
%
Tensile strength

σr·10-5,

Pa

Relative elongation,
%

Tensile strength

σr·10-5,

Pa

5

824 32,4 563 22,6
10 790 33,4 565

19,6

15

780 33,4 786 27,5
20 765 34,3 820

33,4

25

858 34,3 500 16,7
30 863 35,3 487

11,8

* Permanent elongation in both cases was 8%

The table shows that the films with dispersion made in the AVS are stronger (by 40-50%) compared to the film with general dispersion made in the ball mill in a 24 hour process.

 

AVS in waste water treatment

Treatment of industrial waste water is one of the most important stages of any production process. Besides, environmental safety is not only a matter of preference, but a requirement in our times. In this page you can find information on industrial applications of the vortex layer device in waste water treatment and the existing process arrangements of implemented devices.

Removal of hexavalent chrome and other heavy metals

The nature of the vortex layer used for treatment of waste water containing hexavalent chrome and other heavy metals allows to radically reduce reagent consumption, achieves a more complete purification and makes the process continuous.

Ferromagnetic elements in the active zone of the AVS device, in the electromagnetic field, intensively mix the reagents entering the active zone. The shock and friction causes pulverization to colloid degree of dispersion. The colloid metal is a good reduction agent.

Simultaneously with the formation of colloid metal in the process of ferromagnetic element dispersion, the electrolysis of water in the vortex layer generates hydrogen. Both factors play a significant part in reduction of hexavalent chrome and other heavy metals in the waste water. This capability of the vortex layer significantly reduces the consumption of ferric sulfate for reduction of hexavalent chrome, and even achieve complete reduction of hexavalent chrome and other metals in the waste water due to just the colloid metal and the emitted hydrogen.

 Take a look at real researches, more information on the video

To demonstrate the unit, we will purify a sample of chromium containing waste water from electroplating production

Acid and heavy metal content before processing:
pH: 1.75
Fe /iron/: 9.7 mg/liter
Cu /copper/: 19.29 mg/liter
Ni /nickel/: 5.8 mg/liter
Cr+6 /hexavalent chromium/: 19.08 mg/liter
The reduction agent used is ferrous sulfate, FeSO4.
To reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium we will increase acidity to 7.5 pH by adding lime milk, Ca(OH)2.

The processing time is 3 seconds. In a stream, when the vortex layer is engaged, the processing takes fractions of a second.

The reduction reaction in the AVS takes fractions of a second, making it possible to run the process continuously at a high rate.

The intensive mixing of the reagents and the influence of the electromagnetic fields, as well as dispersion of the compounds leads to better dispersion of the metal hydroxides, than that in mechanical mixing devices.

Curiously, increase of sediment dispersion does not slow its setting. On the contrary, sedimentation of solid phase particles in the AVS occurs 1.5 – 2 times faster than in a mechanical mixing device. This is due to the intensive magnetic influence on the suspension changing the interfacial tension on the coundary between the liquid and the solid particle.

A most important property of the vortex layer is the fact that the physical and chemical properties of a substance changes after processing, significantly changing the chemical activity of the product.

Using a mechanical mixer device involves equipment with large footprint and significant capital investment. The duration of the cyclic purification process in this method is 30 to 120 minutes.

Using the AVS for purification of waste water from chrome by using chemical reduction in alkaline environment with simultaneous settling of chrome and other metals in the form of hydroxides only requires vessels for ferrous sulfate and lime milk with portioning devices, one AVS device and a filter or a sludge collector.

The results of testing the vortex layer device for decontamination of chrome-containing waste water are as follows.

 Table 1

Results of decontamination of chrome-containing waste water in AVS

Initial concentration of Cr6+, mg/dm3 pH of the process Consumption of ferrous sulfate, % of stoichiometric amount Weigth of the ferromagnetic elements, g Residual Cr6+ after purification, mg/dm3
100 2 100 150 0
90 0
80 0,56
100 4 90 150 0
80 0,9
590 2 100 200 0
90 0
80 0,8
1000 2,5 100 200 0
90 0,11
80 1,1
200 7,5 100 150 0,012
200 9,0 100 150 0
90 0,05
80 0,98
750 7,5-8,5 90 200 0,1-0,01

Table 2

Results of neutralization and removal of heavy metal ions in an industrial unit with AVS

Initial metal concentration,
mg/dm3
pH of the process Consumption of Са(ОН)2, % of stoichiometric amount Weigth of the ferromagnetic elements, g Residual metal content,
mg/dm3
Fe2+; 3+ = 130,0 7,5 90,0 200 Fe2+; 3+ – 0
Cu2+ = 50,0 Cu2+ – 0,12
Zn2+ = 45,0 Zn2+ – 0,063
Cd2+ = 10,0 Cd2+ – 0,07
Cr3+ = 120,0 Cr3+ – 0
Fe2+; 3+ = 170,0 8,5 100,0 150 Fe2+; 3+ – 0
Cu2+ = 40,0 Cu2+ – 0,018
Zn2+ = 28,0 Zn2+ – 0
Cd2+ = 5,5 Cd2+ – 0,011
Cr3+ = 100,0 Cr3+ – 0
Fe2+; 3+ = 250,0 8,7 100,0 200 Fe2+; 3+ – 0
Cu2+ = 65,0 Cu2+ – footprints
Zn2+ = 35,0 Zn2+ – footprints
Cd2+ = 2505 Cd2+ – 0
Cr3+ = 350,0 Cr3+ – 0

Simultaneously, industrial purification using mechanical agitation and bubble aeration was performed. Consumption of lime milk in the process was 115 — 120% of stoichiometric amount. Duration of mixing the waste water with the reagent was 15-20 minutes.

Figures 1-3 show comparative dependencies heavy metal removal efficient and clarification of waste water in settling tanks using AVS and mechanical mixers.

To compare efficiency of removing chrome from waste water in industrial conditions, chrome was reduced in a regular reagent process in a reactor with bubble aeration, treatment duration was 15-25 minutes.

Figure 3 shows the comparative data of this test.

The results of industrial use of the AVS in facilities purifying chrome containing waste water, both in acidic and alkaline environment, indicate that the AVS based process offers better purification qualities (below the maximum allowable level of contamination) removing chrome and heavy metals (Fe, Ni , Zn, Cu, Cd), while using 90-100% reagents of stoichiometric amount and significant simplification of purification facilities and their operation, as confirmed by the results of experimental research and the efficiency of the ferromagnetic element vortex layer in the AVS. In the regular reagent process, the consumption of reagents is: 115-120%  of precipitation agent (Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3) and 150-175% of reduction agent (FeSO4).

Based on the experiments and the industrial testing of the AVS in the waste water purification process, new processes were offered and implemented in purification facilities of various industrial sites (Fig. 4, 5).

Figure 4 shows the process diagram of simultaneous purification of chrome-containing and acidic/alkaline waste water, the essence being that the waste water from two sections of the facility flow into two mixing vessels in turns.

When one of the tanks is full and the water is averaged, acid is added to bring pH to 2-3, along with reduction agent (sodium bisulphate). After mixing for 5-10 minutes, the water flows to the AVS. Alkali (Na2CO3) is added to the flow to bring рН to 7.5-9. In the AVS the waste water is processed with the reagents for several seconds, completing the reduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ and formation of Cr3+ and other heavy metal hydroxides. A possible reduction agent is ferrous sulfate (FeSO4).

Figure. 4 Process diagram for simultaneous purification of chrome and acid/alkali containing waste water: 1- mixing tank; 2 — reduction agent tank (FeSO4 solution); 3 —Na2CO3 solution preparation tank; 4,7,11 — pumps; 5 — reduction agent tank; 6 — sulfuric acid tank; 8 — AVS; 9, 10 — settling tank; 12 — vacuum filter; 13 — portioning; 14 — flow meter; 15 — reagent consumption regulation valve; 16 — sampling; 17 — pH-meter

Figure. 4 Process diagram for simultaneous purification of chrome and acid/alkali containing waste water: 1- mixing tank; 2 — reduction agent tank (FeSO4 solution); 3 —Na2CO3 solution preparation tank; 4,7,11 — pumps; 5 — reduction agent tank; 6 — sulfuric acid tank; 8 — AVS; 9, 10 — settling tank; 12 — vacuum filter; 13 — portioning; 14 — flow meter; 15 — reagent consumption regulation valve; 16 — sampling; 17 — pH-meter

Using vortex layer devices in this process improves the purification to the point where contamination is below the maximum allowable limits, reduce reagent us by 1.5-2 times, half the energy costs and reduce purification facility footprint by 10 – 15%.

 In the process diagram (Fig. 5) the purification in AVS occurs in three separate streams:
  • Reduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ in chrome containing water;
  • Oxidation of cyanides to cyanates in in cyan-containing waste water (pH 10-11, alkali and oxidant);
  • Simultaneous purification of waste water after mixing decontaminated chrome and cyan containing water with alkaline/acidic water.

To removal of salts from the purified waste, a gravel-sand filter, cation and anion exchange filters are used, from which the water goes to clean water tank and back into the process.

Fig. 5 Process diagram of galvanic plating waste water purification

Fig. 5 Process diagram of galvanic plating waste water purification

This method of waste water purification if the most economical, opening wide possibilities of its use in various industries.

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Purification of waste water from phenol and other organic contaminants

In most facilities, such water is purified by oxidizing phenol and other organic contaminants by manganese peroxide, sodium or potassium dichromate at 95-100º С. The oxidation process takes 3 to 5 hours, consuming 5 grams of oxidant per 1 gram of phenol.

Using AVS allows to significantly simplify the process, reduce the oxidation reaction temperature to 20-25º С, lower oxidant consumption to 2-3g per 1 g of phenol and reduce the reaction duration to hundredth of a second.

The purification unit with 12 reactors 25 m3 each can purify 400 to 600 m3 of water per day. The method often does not ensure high quality of purification, wit only 75-90% rate of phenol removal.

We have developed a new continuous process of decontamination waste water containing phenol and other organic contaminants using the vortex layer device.

Testing indicated that AVS can ensure good purification of waste water from phenol with lower operation costs than those involved in regular methods.

It was determined that removal of phenol in the concentration of 0.5-10 g/dm3, at acidity up to 5 g/dm3 can be performed by such oxidants as manganese peroxide, sodium or potassium dichromate, potassium potassium permanganate for oxidation time τ = 0.1-2 seconds, at 20-45 ºС to residual phenol content after purification1.2-10 mg/dm3 when using manganese peroxide, 0.2-5 mg/dm3 using potassium dichromate, 0.1-1.0 mg/dm3 potassium permanganate.

The process of removal phenol from waste water using AVS (fig. 6) is simpler in terms of technology and hardware than the current industrial process.

Simultaneous with phenol oxidation, other organic contaminants in the water also oxidize. Formaldehyde content is reduced to 50-100 mg/dm3 (initially 10 g/dm3), methanol – to 2.3 mg/dm3 (initially 6.4 g/dm3), diphenylol propane – to 150 mg/dm3 (initial 4.6 g/dm3).

The following conditions are recommended for purification of phenol-containing waste water in AVS:

  • Initial water acidity no less than 3-5 g/dm3;
  • Oxidation process temperature 20-45º С (in waste water contains resins, the temperature should be increased to 45-60ºС);
  • Oxidant consumption 2.5-3.0 weight parts per 1 g phenol;
  • Device processing rate: AVS-100 – up to 10 m3/hour, AVS-150 up to 25 m3/hour.
Fig. 6. The process of phenol removal from industrial waste water (recommended): 1 – waste water averaging; 2 – oxidant tank; 3 – oxidation reactor; 4 –Na2SO4 storage tank; 5 – filter-press; 6,7,8 – pumps; 9 – AVS.

Fig. 6. The process of phenol removal from industrial waste water (recommended): 1 – waste water averaging; 2 – oxidant tank; 3 – oxidation reactor; 4 –Na2SO4 storage tank; 5 – filter-press; 6,7,8 – pumps; 9 – AVS.

Implementation of vortex layer device in the process of phenol removel reduced energy costs by 10 – 15 times, lowers reagent consumption by 1.5-2 times, decreases equipment footprint by 1.5 – 2 times.

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Removal of cyanides

The most toxic waste waters are those containing both simple cyanides (with CN—ions) and complex [Cu(CN2)—], [Cu(CN3)-2], [Zn(CN4)-2] etc. Total concentration of simple and complex cyanides varies from 10-15 to 150-300 mg/liter. The most widespread method today is reagent method of oxidation by calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2, hypochlorite lime CaOCl2 or gaseous chlorine.

Most of the cyanide-containing water is purified in cyclic purification units, where the water is treated by the reagents in reservoirs. Larger amounts of waste water are processed in continuous devices.

The reaction occurs in two stages: oxidation of cyanides to cyanates at pH=10÷11.5, followed by cyanate hydrolysis to nitrogen and carbon dioxide at pH=7÷7.5.

Using the vortex layer device allows to oxidize cyanides and decompose them into carbonates and ammonia in one stage in alkaline environment at pH=9÷10.

In the industrial method of purifying cyanide-containing water, the water follows into averaging tank and are pumped into the vortex layer device. At the same time, alkaline agent and oxidizer are supplied to the active zone of the device. pH and cyanide content are monitored by a pH meter and cyan signaler. The water from the device follows to a collector and are mixed with neutralized water from other electroplating facilities.

A 5 – 10% solution of lime or soda is used as alkaline agent, the oxidizer is calcium hypochlorite, chlorine or hypochlorite lime. Oxidizer consumption is 110% of stoichiometric calculation.

Table 3 presents analysis of the results obtained by testing AVS-100 device purifying cyanide-containing waste water at the rate of 12-15 m3/hour.

Table 3

The results of purifying cyanide-containing waste water using AVS-100 vortex layer device

Initial cyan ion content, mg/liter Content of cyan ions after AVS processing, mg/liter
8000 0.12
2300 0.09
4320 0.02
50 0.02
62.4 0.0011
34.3 0.0014

As the data shows, the quality of purification is not related to the concentration of cyan-ion in the initial waste water.

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Removal of arsenic from waste water

A pressing problem of mining and ore industry is the removal of arsenic from waste water by precipitating it using iron hydroxide or reduction by Na2S, K2S, FeS2.

The sedimentation process occurs when a ferrous salt, such as FeCl3, forms a soft amorphous sediment Fe(OH)3 in alkaline environment, which has larger active area. As the substance precipitates, it adsorbs and carries away ions of arsenite and arsenate. This is the process of reducing AS5+ to AS3+.

We have run tests using electromagnetic fields in the process of arsenic removal from waste water.

There were two directions of research:

  • Precipitation of arsenic compounds as complexes;
  • Reduction of arsenic compounds.

The waters used in the tests were taken from production of magnesium, xanthate production and processing of pyrites.

The reagents used were ferrichloride, nitrite concentrate, potassium and sodium sulphide, which are part of xanthate production.

Quality of waste water purification depends on the pH of the media, the amount of reagents and other factors. Therefore, we research the influence of the following factors on precipitation or reduction of arsenic:

  • Amount of reagents;
  • pH of the environment;
  • duration of processing in the vortex layer;
  • duration of saturating the researched water sample with oxygen to improve process conditions.

The reagent used to remove waste water from arsenic was ferrichloride in carious weight ratios to the content of arsenic in the water. The exiting industrial process uses 10 times the amount of FeCl3, only bringing arsenic content to the maximum allowable limits.

In the process we used AVS-100 vortex layer device (m = 150 g, τ = 3-5 seconds), and with the consumption of the reagent in the same amount as in the exiting technology, no arsenic was detected in purified water. Using a 5 time excess of the reagent yields the same results, while 3 times excess significantly lowers the concentration from initial 2115 mg/dm³ to residual 116 mg/dm³.

The conditions of the process during the research were changed as follows:

  • Loading of the reagent (pyrite concentrate) into the water without prior pulverization in AVS;
  • Loading of pyrite concentrate pulverized in AVS (τ = 5-60 seconds, pH = 5-8), and supply of air into the water without processing in the device. The amount ot reagent changed depending on arsenic concentration.

To remove arsenic from waste water of a copper plant using AVS, the reagents used were Na2S, K2S, which are part of xanthate process byproducts.

The parameters of purification process were: τ = 1-3 seconds, pH = 3-4, m = 175 g, concentration of AS5+ in initial water 1.6 g/dm³, acidity 5-6 g/dm³.

 The results of waste water purification from arsenic are shown in Table 4.

Table 4

The results of researching arsenic-containing waste water purification in AVS

Ferromagnetic elements Concentration of  AS5+ in initial water,
mg/dm³
Reagent consumption,
g
Duration of processing in the vortex layer,
с
Concentration of arsenic in purified water,
mg/dm³
weight,
g
length,
mm
diameter,
mm
Magnesium production
150 16-18 1,6 2115 (pH = 7-8) 10 times FeCl3 5 0
150 16-18 1,6 2115 (pH = 7-8) 5 times FeCl3 1-5 0
150 16-18 1,6 2115 (pH = 7-8) 3 times FeCl3 1-5 0,9-0
150 16-18 1,6 2115 (pH = 7-8) 3 times FeCl3 5 1,0
175 16-18 1,6 35 (pH = 7-8) Pyrite concentrate, 65 g 60 28 (no bubble aeration)
0(with bubble aeration)
175 16-18 1,6 35 (pH = 7-8) Pyrite concentrate 3.5 g 60 24 (no bubble aeration)
0(with bubble aeration)
175 16-18 1,6 35 (pH = 7-8) Pyrite concentrate 10.0 g 60 0,05 (no bubble aeration)
0(with bubble aeration)
175 16-18 1,6 35 (pH = 5-6) Pyrite concentrate 0.65 g 5 2,0 (no bubble aeration) 0,04 (with bubble aeration)
Xanthate waste water
175 16-18 1,6 2000 (pH3) 7,0 Na2S 0
175 16-18 1,6 2000 (pH3) 6,0 Na2S 0,9
175 16-18 1,6 2000 (pH3) 5,5 Na2S 1,5
175 16-18 1,6 2000 (pH3) 5,0 Na2S 12,0

Research shows that the use of vortex layer device while removing arsenic from waste water allows to completely precipitate the arsenic after 1-5 seconds of processing in the vortex layer and reduce reagent consumption by 3-5 times compared to the regular technology, simplify the process and make it continuous.

Removal of fluor and nitric compounds from waste water

Research performed in the area of decontamination and fluor removal from waste water using AVS shows (table 5) that these devices are more efficient compared to the existing equipment.

Fluor removal and transformation of phosphates into water-insoluble compounds occurs in one stage. The content of fluor in purified waste water in optimal conditions (pH = 10-11) up to 1.5 mg/dm³, no phosphates. Duration of processing in the vortex layer: 1-3 seconds. A reasonable choice of reagent is lime with 5-10% excess of CaO from the theoretically calculated amount. Using AVS in the process of fluor removal reduces reagent consumption, electric power consumption, equipment footprint and improves the quality of purification.

Mean processing rate of the AVS is approximately 30000 m³/hour per 1m³ of active zone volume, which corresponds to AVS -100 capacity up to15 m³/hour, and AVS-150 capacity up to 40 m³/hour.

The use of AVS to remove aromatic nitric compounds from waste water by reducing them to the corresponding amines is quite promising as well. The recommended ferromagnetic elements for this process are made of carbon steel, 1 – 1.4 mm in diameter, with 1/d ratio of 12 to 16.

Table 5

Influence of AVS processing on waste water purification

Initial parameters Waste water parameters after AVS processing
Waste water Lime milk
pH F, mg/dm ³ P2O5, mg/dm³ CaO, % pH F, mg/dm ³ P2O5, mg/dm³
3,65 350 2100 105 7,6 10 32
3,65 700 2250 105 8,2 7,5 8
5,9 1100 3200 105 9,2 5 0
3,0 1500 6500 105 11,5 1,2 0
3,0 1500 5100 110 11,6 1,15 0
3,95 750 5000 110 9,3 4,5 0
3,95 750 5050 110 8,6 7,1 0
3,95 750 5050 110 10,0 1,4 0

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Application of AVS for mixing of granular materials

The characteristics of ferromagnetic particle vortex layer allow the use of this device for mixing of various granular materials, using less energy compared to other methods and equipment, as well as preventing separation of the blend.

Numerous efforts of engineers and scientists in the area of equipment and method development for mixing of granular material often strike the obstacles caused by the nature of such materials and their flow.

A lack of a clear definition of “granular material” which would fully reflect its physical nature, generally accepted quantitative characteristics, sound methods and sufficient instruments for measuring parameters and evaluating qualities of granular material cause the emergence of many theories describing the processes occurring in flowing granular media. The general tendency in development of equipment for processing of granular material is creation of devices with intensive shear forces acting on the layers of mixed materials, ensuring the required redistribution of the components in the minimum amount of time.

pain pigment

Mixed and pulverized pigment on AVS

The optimal features which an efficient mixer should possess are the following:

  • Variable frequency and amplitude of vibration background;
  • The most complicated movement of the actuating element;
  • Uniform intensity of the vibration background across the volume of the media.

However, reaching the above is difficult in terms of construction and economy due to the need to ensure intensive micro and macro mixing requiring solutions to, often, opposing problems. Some of the promising devices are continuous double-shaft vibration mixers. Apart from macro-mixing by vanes, high frequency mixing in micro-volume also occurs. However, this solution also involves high energy costs, much of this energy is expended on vibration of the mixer’s body, the massive counterweight and the whole mass of the components mixed. Therefore, development of new principles and devices for the purpose is a pressing objective.

The general layout of the device developed by cyclic mixing of granular material is shown in Figure 1. The device consists mainly of the same components as the AVS-100 described above. The distinction is the assembly which moves the chamber relative to the inductor of the rotating EM-field at a certain rate. The three available velocity settings are 1.83; 2.85; 5.6 meters/minute. The design of the device is such that allows quick replacement of chambers in the course of operation and processing of the components within a selected time frame. Spare tools and assemblies, as well as active chamber with a cooling jacket allow processing of granular material if the temperature inside the mix must be limited.

 

 The complicated issue of efficient mixing of granular material is easily solved by using the Vortex Layer Device

Of the ways of solving the complex problem of mixing granular material is the vortex layer of ferromagnetic particles. In case of continuous mixing of granular material, the device creating the layer must satisfy the following basic criteria: prevent the ferromagnetic particles from being ejected from the active zone and to ensure their constant replenishment, and to prevent separation of the mix after it exits the vortex layer.

No less important in the process of continuous mixing is the method of transporting the mixed components through the vortex layer, since the area of the layer should be free of any other devices. The most acceptable idea is to supply the material into the active zone under the pull of gravity. In this case, the axis of electromagnetic field rotation (and, consequently, of the chamber) must be either vertical or angled relative to the horizon at an angle larger than that of the natural slope of the granular materials.

Portioning devices for the granular components are extremely important, as errors in portioning does changes the ratio of components supplied to the mixing zone. Actual mixing quality does not depend on that error and is defined only on the performance of the vortex layer.

Since the vortex layer has a certain angular velocity in the direction of the electromagnetic field rotation, the components mixed and the mix also assume this velocity. In the vortex layer zone this phenomenon does not influence the quality of the mix due to the chaotic motion of the ferromagnetic elements and mixed particles. However, at the exit of the mix form the layer, separation of the mix occurs.

Therefore, rotation of the mix must be stopped at the exit from the active zone; this is achieved by a special design of the output line. The output line must be equipped with devices holing the ferromagnetic elements in the active zone (such as electromagnetic influence on the, arresting their axial motion on the edge of the rotating electromagnetic field by any method available) or capturing them by special traps and further replenishment in the active zone.

The simplest device is a cyclic mixer of powders. In this case, the requirements above are not important, but a new one arises. In continuous mixing, uniform distribution of the mixed components in the plane of ferromagnetic element rotation is the decisive factor; however, in cyclic mixing, the important thing is the uniform distribution in the plane perpendicular to ferromagnetic element plane of rotation.

AVS modified for processing of granular material

Fig.1 Design of AVS-100 (modified for processing of granular material): 1 – body; 2 – inductor of the rotation electromagnetic field; 3 – active chamber; 4 – active chamber movement assembly.

 

In this case in the initial moment of time, as a rule, the mixed components fill certain volumes in the active zone with minimal area of contact. Since the time of retention of the particles of the mixed materials in the vortex layer is not the same during motion through the vortex layer, moving the active chamber relative to the magnetic system, or the other way around, can ensure distribution of the particles of the mixed components along the axis of the device’s active chamber. By varying the load of ferromagnetic particles and their size, the rate of active chamber motion can ensure the required degree of mix homogenization within a certain time.

In case of cyclic mixing mode, the important influence is the intensity of longitudinal redistribution of mixed particles. Hence the requires to the performance of the vortex layer and the design of the device for this purpose. In this case, one of the most important parameters defining the mixing process is the rate of active chamber motion relative to the vortex layer. This rate of motion is defined by the coefficient of ferromagnetic element load in the chamber, and ultimately by the probability of the particles passing unaffected through the vortex layer.