Wastewater treatment. In the process of biological treatment of highly concentrated wastewater from industrial enterprises, food and light industries, the main role is played by microorganisms that colonize the treatment plants. These microorganisms use the substances contained in wastewater for their life-sustaining activity. These bacteria in the activated sludge are Pseudomonas, Bacterium, Micrococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Thiobacillus. They perform the destruction of complex organic compounds and nitrogen compounds.
Biocenosis in a bioreactor occurs with the help of anoxic and aerobic technologies immobilizing microorganisms, hydrobionts and free-floating particles of activated sludge. These anaerobic-aerobic wastewater treatments are implemented in the food and light industries. They use Pseudomonas, oxidizing alcohols, fatty acids, waxes, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbohydrates and Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter bacteria. In addition to bacteria, an important role is also played by invertebrates, algae, fungi, microscopic animals that form hydrobiocenoses in wastewater-treatment facilities.
The pollutants in wastewater and their concentrations and the place of their conglomeration, either in the water or on its surface determine the treatment conditions: anaerobic, anoxic or aerobic.
The presence of rotifer, and worms (higher trophic level organisms in the food chain) in the aerobic bioreactor also improve wastewater treatment. These organisms eat away the detritus, bacteria and protozoa; they stop the increase of biomass, reduce the costs of recycling and disposal of sediment; mineralize biomass and improve sediment properties.
In bioreactors of wastewater treatment plants the immobilized microorganisms form bio-conveyor of bacteria: small flagellates, ciliates, rotifers and worms effectively clean wastewater of contaminants, regulate the number of hydrobiont populations, which leads to a reduction of biomass.