The vortex layer generator can also be used successfully in fuel production, specifically for modification of liquid hydrocarbon fluids by water and for production of motor and heating fuel with improved performance and environmental properties.
The method of modified fuel production involves missing of the hydrocarbon components with water in a rotating electromagnetic field of the vortex layer device at the component ratios of 60:40 to 98:2.
To increase the octane number before mixing, 5 – 10% (of the hydrocarbon component) of oxygenates are introduced into the mix.
The components are subjected to the influence of the rotating EM field for at least 10 seconds. The fuel obtained in this manner burns more efficiently, improving technical and economic performance. See table 1 for specifics.
|Samples||Qty. RPM||76 Gasoline, regular||Water modified gasoline
|СО, %||CH, ppm||СО, %||CH, ppm|
One known way of production of fuel emulsion is mixing fuel, water and a surfactant to stabilize the emulsion.
In this method, water is first mixed with the surfactant, then with the fuel, or the fuel, the water and the stabilizer are mixed simultaneously. Introduction of fuel into the emulsion is performed at flow rate ratio of 1:1:50.
The drawback of this method is the use of a surfactant, which usually adversely affects combustion and exhaust: carbon deposits in cylinders, increased content of CO and CH in exhaust. Besides, the technology is rather complex and unreliable, since even a slight deviation from the flow rate ratio causes instability of the emulsion.
The method involves dispersal of water in fuel until droplet size is 1 micron, using fractionation devices, including a sieve, static, rotary or ultrasonic mixer. The emulsified fuel obtained contains emulsification system, which includes at least one complex sorbitan ester.
While modifying diesel fuel in this manner, the cetane number drops significantly, viscosity and soluble gum content increase. Besides, the process of fractionation using various types of mixers and sieves is lengthy and complicated. It is a cyclic process, run until the droplet size decreases to the required value (1 micron).
Storage stability of such emulsion at room temperature does not exceed three months, which is apparently not sufficient for industrial use.
The Vortex Layer device allows production of stable antifloating fuel by subjecting the components to a rotating EM field, created in the AVS chamber.
The results of using the AVS is the improvement of economic and process performance of fuel. Water-fuel emulsion made by the AVS is so stable that does not require surfactants
The result is the improvement of economic and operational characteristics of the fuel.
This is achieved by mixing the components at room temperature for 10-15 seconds in the rotating EM field of the vortex layer device (AVS). Content of water in hydrocarbon fuel may be from 2 to 40%. The product is a water-fuel emulsion, so stable, that a surfactant is not required.
This method implies using oxygenates as additives to improve octane and cetane numbers of fuel, including those soluble in water, in the amount of 5 – 10% (by weight) of the amount of the hydrocarbon component. Some of the oxygenates used are alcohols (including ethyl alcohol) and esters (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and ETAE).
By modifying gasoline with water in the vortex layer device, the authors were able to produce fuel compliant with the relevant standard with octane number increase by 2 – 3 points. Comparison if exhaust gases before and after modification are shown in Table 1. As can be seen in the table, the content of CO in the exhaust has been decreased significantly, with a marked reduction of CH content.
The invention is applicable for production of all types of fuel, including heating fuel.
The invention is applicable for production of all types of fuel, including heating fuel. Implementation allows to produce stable combinations of liquid hydrocarbons and water, with long storage life.
Modified fuel complies with the standards, has a higher octane number compared with the original. Tests of experimental batches of fuel also revealed their cleaning effect.
The water-fuel emulsion ensures fuller fuel combustion, less carbon deposits and improves fuel performance.
It is suggested to run this process using a vortex layer device with ferromagnetic particles.
Using the AVS to mix gasoline and water influenced the structure of both fuel and water. When fuel and water are mixed, new chemical compounds form, making separation of the components impossible.
Example 1. To process the ingredients, a steel capsule was filled with 1750 ml of gasoline (0.85-0.9 of the capsule’s volume), 500±50 grams of ferromagnetic elements, 2-40% water and 5-20% oxygenates. The capsule was sealed and placed into the vortex layer device for 10-15 second processing. The result was a stable fuel-water emulsion not separating for a long period of time.
The content of water in gasoline depends on the conditions of treatment; in the vortex layer the molecules of hydrocarbons undergo structural change, altering their physical and chemical properties.
Example 2. This is similar to Example 1, but performed with 1750 ml of diesel fuel and 3-5% water. The experiment results in fuel emulsion with improved environmental performance and increased cetane number.
Example 3. Similar to Example 1, but performed with heavy fuel oil. The water-fuel emulsion allows for a more complete combustion of fuel and cinder, reduction of NOx emissions, elimination of complex and expensive fuel drying and water removal devices. This resulted in a stable fuel emulsion with improved environmental parameters and increased cetane number.
Industrial production of fuels with this invention will bring a significant economic effect when using water in fuel and a reduction of harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
The method of modification of liquid hydrocarbon fuel, including mixing of the fuel with water, performed in a rotary electromagnetic field of a vortex layer generator with component ratio (fuel to water) in the range of 60:40 to 98:2.
The number 1 method involves adding of oxygenates to increase ocrtane number in the amount of 5-10% of the fuel before mixing of the components.
The method involves treatment in the rotary EM field for at least 10 seconds.